A growing literature stresses the importance of early childhood human capital. I ask whether variation in early childhood investments can help explain cross-country income differences. I provide new empirical evidence: the adult outcomes of refugees are independent of age at arrival to the United States up to age six, despite dramatic improvements in income and environment upon arrival. A standard model is consistent with this finding if parents but not country are important for early childhood development. This finding limits the mechanisms for generating cross-country early childhood human capital differences. I also provide suggestive evidence on parental inputs.
"Early Childhood Human Capital and Development."
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
Education and Inequality
Returns to Education
Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials