Government and not-for-profits
Many roles for economists in these sectors
Governments at every level hire economists to manage and evaluate their operations. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) of the Federal government provides information about Federal employment opportunities. Their USAJobs site lists thousands of openings of all kinds in many locations across the country. Search on "economist" to find information about specific current opportunities. There are often openings for economists with BA, MA, and PhD degrees.
The OPM website also gives general information about Federal pay scales. BA economists with little experience are (to simplify a bit) at grade GS-7, with MAs at GS-9, and new PhDs start at GS-12. Although pay does differ with the cost of living in different locations, BA economists started at $31,209 or above in 2006.
The Federal Reserve Board and its affiliated regional Federal Reserve Banks also hire economists and research assistants at various levels of education. Skill with statistics and in managing data will be helpful for many entry jobs.
State governments have similar websites that list public service jobs with pay scales and application procedures. Searching the Internet for "state employment" will usually yield an appropriate link.
International agencies of many kinds hire economists for a variety of roles. Additional languages, strong communication skills, experience with diverse cultures, and statistical skills are often important. The World Bank, for example, offers jobs for economists. The Bank has an internship program as well.
One way to learn about employment with non-profits is to go to the Idealist website and look for roles in economic development or other areas of interest.