Citizenship rights are associated with better economic opportunities
for immigrants. This paper studies how in a country with a large
fraction of temporary migrants the fertility decisions of foreign
citizens respond to a change in the rules that regulate child legal
status at birth. The introduction of birthright citizenship in Germany
in 2000, represented a positive shock to the returns to investment
in child human capital. Consistent with Becker's "quality-quantity"
model of fertility, we find that birthright citizenship leads to a
reduction in immigrant fertility and an improvement in health and
socio-emotional outcomes for the children affected by the reform.
Avitabile, Ciro, Irma Clots-Figueras, and Paolo Masella.
"Citizenship, Fertility, and Parental Investments."
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,
Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity