Using data on 25 major American cities for the period 1900–1940, we explore the effects of municipal-level public health efforts that were viewed as critical in the fight against foodborne and waterborne diseases. In addition to studying interventions such as treating sewage and setting bacteriological standards for milk, which have received little attention, we provide new evidence on the effects of water filtration and chlorination, extending the work of previous scholars. Although water filtration is associated with an 11–12 percent reduction in infant mortality, none of the other interventions under study appear to have contributed to the observed mortality declines.
Anderson, D. Mark, Kerwin Kofi Charles, and Daniel I. Rees.
"Reexamining the Contribution of Public Health Efforts to the Decline in Urban Mortality."
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,
State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions
Health: Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
Valuation of Environmental Effects
Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling