Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries: Constraints on Adaptation and Mechanisms for Relaxing Them
Saturday, Jan. 4, 2020 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM (PDT)
- Chair: Vis Taraz, Smith College
Do Social Protection Programs Foster Short‐Term and Long‐Term Migration Adaptation Strategies?
AbstractThis paper examines how migration is influenced by temperature and precipitation variability, and the extent to which the receipt of a cash transfer affects the use of migration as an adaptation strategy. Climate data is merged with georeferenced panel data (2010‐2014) on individual migration collected from the Zambian Child Grant Program (CGP) sites. We use the person‐year dataset to identify the direct and heterogeneous causal effects of the CGP on mobility. Having access to cash transfers doubles the rate of male, short‐distance moves during cool periods irrespective of wealth. Receipt of cash transfers(among wealthier households) during extreme heat causes an additional retention of males. Cash transfers positively spur long‐distance migration under normal climate conditions in the long term. They also facilitate short‐distance responses to climate, but not long‐distance responses that might be demanded by future climate change.
Climate Change, Structural Transformation, and Infrastructure: Evidence from India
AbstractIn developing economies with large productivity gaps, reallocation of workers both across space and sectors is crucial for economic development as it allows for a more efficient allocation of human capital. In this paper, we examine how rising temperatures under climate change affect the pace of reallocation of workers within local labor markets. Specifically, relying on six decades of district-level census data from India, we explore how decadal changes in temperature have affected urbanization and structural transformation within districts. We find evidence that rising temperatures are associated with lower rates of urbanization, higher shares of workers in agriculture, and lower shares of workers in non-agriculture. These effects are concentrated in districts with sparse road infrastructure networks, suggesting that higher temperatures exacerbate liquidity constraints faced by rural, isolated households, and subsequently limit rural-urban and sectoral mobility. Our findings demonstrate that the impacts of climate change can be unequal even within a country, and are aggravated by underdevelopment.
- Q5 - Environmental Economics