In many countries throughout the world, regulators are struggling to determine
whether and how to introduce competition into regulated industries. This essay examines
the complexities involved in the liberalization process. While stressing the importance
of case-specific analyses, this essay distinguishes liberalization policies that
generally are procompetitive from corresponding anticompetitive liberalization policies.
Armstrong, Mark and David E.M. Sappington.
2006."Regulation, Competition and Liberalization."Journal of Economic Literature,
44(2): 325-366.DOI: 10.1257/jel.44.2.325