Gender, Human Capital and Labor Supply Around the World
Saturday, Jan. 4, 2020 10:15 AM - 12:15 PM (PDT)
- Chair: Abigail Adams, University of Oxford
Preferences and Beliefs in the Marriage Market for Young Brides
AbstractRajasthani women typically leave school early and marry young. We develop a novel discrete choice methodology using hypothetical vignettes to elicit average parental preferences over a daughter’s education and age of marriage, and subjective beliefs about the evolution of her marriage market prospects. We find parents have a strong preference for delaying a daughter’s marriage until eighteen but no further. Conditional on a marriage match, parents place little intrinsic value on a daughter’s education. However, they believe the probability of receiving a good marriage offer increases strongly with a daughter’s education but deteriorates quickly with her age on leaving school.
Incarceration of African American Men and the Impacts on Women and Children
AbstractSince the early 1970s, the United States has experienced a dramatic surge in imprisonment, especially among African American men. This paper investigates the causal effects of black male incarceration on black women's marriage and labor market outcomes, as well as its effects on black children's family structure, long-run educational outcomes, and income. To establish causality, I exploit plausibly exogenous changes in sentencing policies across states and over years, and construct a simulated instrumental variable for the incarceration rate, using offender-level data on the universe of prisoners admitted to and released from prisons between 1986 and 2009. The instrument characterizes how sentencing policies affect incarceration at both the extensive margin (i.e., whether to incarcerate an arrestee) and the intensive margin (i.e., how long to imprison an inmate). First, I find that high incarceration rates of black men negatively affect black women's marriage outcomes, although they increase the likelihood of employment for those with higher education levels. Second, higher black male incarceration rates hurt black children by increasing the likelihood of out-of-wedlock birth and living in a mother-only family, and decreasing the likelihood of having some college education in the long run. Moreover, for individuals who lived in areas with harsher sentencing policies during childhood, the black-white income gap is wider for men conditional on parental income. Third, black men at either the extensive or intensive margin of incarceration have different impacts on women and children. The results suggest the consequences of the tough-on-crime policies for inequality and racial gaps, which could be taken into account when reforming sentencing policies.
Personality Traits, Job Search Strategies and Gender Wage Gap
AbstractThis paper introduces the Big Five personality traits along with other covariates in a job search and matching model and investigates how personality traits affect parameters and job search behavior. We build on prior research by Flinn et al. (2018) that estimated a neoclassical labor supply model for households using the HILDA dataset for Australia and found personality traits to be important determinants of gender wage and employment differentials. We also build on Flabbi (2010a,b) that estimates a job search model to examine the evidence for gender wage discrimination in the US. We develop and estimate a partial equilibrium search model in which personality traits can influence productivity, job search effort and the division of surplus from the employer-employee match. The estimation is based on the IZA Evaluation Dataset, a panel dataset focusing on newly- unemployed individuals in Germany between late 2007 and late 2008. Preliminary results show that emotional stability is a significant positive determinant of productivity, extroversion positively affects job arrival rates, and agreeableness is associated with lower bargaining power. Our structural Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition shows a significant component of gender wage inequality is explained by gender differences in personality traits, particularly how these traits are rewarded in the labor market.
- J1 - Demographic Economics
- O1 - Economic Development