Friday, Jan. 6, 2017 7:30 PM – 9:30 PM
- Chair: Muriel Niederle, Stanford University
Long Hours and Women’s Job Choices: Cross Country and Within United States Evidence
AbstractWe examine the relationship between the prevalence of overwork (as proxied for by the share of men working 50 or more hours per week) and women's labor force participation and occupational choice. Using country-level variation across education-groups, and over time, we find a negative relationship between the prevalence of overwork and the LFP rates of young married women, with the effects being much smaller for single women and older married women. Using a panel of occupations across countries and within the US, we find that the prevalence of overwork in an occupation significantly lowers the share of married women working in that occupation, particularly those with young children. These findings are robust to controlling for the occupational distribution of groups with fewer childcare responsibilities such as males and single women. Long hours of work appear to have a much more limited effect on the occupational distribution of other groups such as single women, childless women, older females, and males, suggesting that the key channel through which the prevalence of overwork affects occupational choice is by reducing the desirability of the work environment for women with family responsibilities.
The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-Census
AbstractGender pay gaps widen with age. They expand for several decades after schooling ends, more for those who are married, have children and are more educated. Some obvious reasons exist for these widening earnings gaps including the earnings penalty for mothers and for the trailing spouse. These penalties, moreover, have been shown to be larger among higher income occupations. In this paper, we explore the role of the mean wage by establishment. Using information in the LEHD from 1995 to 2008 for individuals in the 2000 US Census, we find that for college graduates the gender earnings gap expands by 34 log points and for high school graduates without a college degree it expands by 16 log points. In both cases about 45 percent is attributable to wage differences between establishments and 55 percent to differential wage growth within establishments. Men move to higher wage establishments relative to women in their 20s and early 30s and then they do better within establishments. These differences could be because lower wage establishments offer greater amenities valued by those with family responsibilities or because women are disproportionately trailing or tied spouses.
Competitiveness and Education Choices
AbstractThis paper relates experimental economics measures to education and labor market outcomes.
- J0 - General
- J1 - Demographic Economics