American Economic Journal: Economic Policy
no. 4, November 2023
During the South African apartheid, Black people were forced to move to homelands during the 1960s and 1970s, resulting in one of history's largest segregation policy experiments. We examine how and why relocation to the homelands affected human capital attainment. Exploiting the staggered timing of homeland establishment in a cross-cohort identification strategy, we find that moving to the homelands during childhood significantly reduces educational attainment, labor earnings, and employment rates in adulthood. The data suggest an important role for place effects. Moving to the homelands in childhood implies greater exposure to poorer neighborhoods, and it disproportionally reduces human capital attainment.
Carrillo, Bladimir, Carlos Charris, and Wilman Iglesias.
"Moved to Poverty? A Legacy of the Apartheid Experiment in South Africa."
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,
Returns to Education
Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Africa; Oceania
Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics