Immigrant Integration in the United States: The Role of Adult English Language Training
Blake H. Heller
Kirsten Slungaard Mumma
- American Economic Journal: Economic Policy (Forthcoming)
The ability to speak and understand a host country’s primary language
is strongly associated with measures of immigrant integration.
We estimate the causal effects of English language training
for adult immigrants on participants’ civic and economic outcomes
using randomized enrollment lotteries from a public adult education
program in Massachusetts. Participation doubles voter participation
and increases annual earnings by $2,400 (56%). Increased
tax revenue from earnings gains cover program costs over time,
generating a 6% return for taxpayers. Ours is the first randomized
evaluation of adult English language training as a standalone
intervention in the United States.
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