Past research documents the persistence of positive impacts of early life interventions on noncognitive skills. We test the symmetry of this finding by studying the persistence of a sizeable negative shock to noncognitive outcomes arising with the introduction of universal child care in Quebec. We find that the negative effects on noncognitive outcomes persisted to school ages, and also that cohorts with increased child care access had worse health, lower life satisfaction, and higher crime rates later in life. Our results reinforce previous evidence of the central role of the early childhood environment for long-run success.
Baker, Michael, Jonathan Gruber, and Kevin Milligan.
"The Long-Run Impacts of a Universal Child Care Program."
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,
General Welfare; Well-Being
Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law