JEL Classification System / EconLit Subject Descriptors

The JEL classification system was developed for use in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), and is a standard method of classifying scholarly literature in the field of economics. The system is used to classify articles, dissertations, books, book reviews, and working papers in EconLit, and in many other applications. For descriptions and examples, see the JEL Codes Guide.

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All changes since 2023-07-01 are noted below.
= New Classification
= Updated Classification

General Categories

AGeneral Economics and Teaching
BHistory of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
CMathematical and Quantitative Methods
EMacroeconomics and Monetary Economics
FInternational Economics
GFinancial Economics
HPublic Economics
IHealth, Education, and Welfare
JLabor and Demographic Economics
KLaw and Economics
LIndustrial Organization
MBusiness Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics
NEconomic History
OEconomic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
PPolitical Economy and Comparative Economic Systems
QAgricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics
RUrban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
YMiscellaneous Categories
ZOther Special Topics

A. General Economics and Teaching
A1 General Economics
A10 General
A11 Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists
A12 Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13 Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14 Sociology of Economics
A19 Other
A2 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
A20 General
A21 Pre-college
A22 Undergraduate
A23 Graduate
A29 Other
A3 Collective Works
A30 General
A31 Collected Writings of Individuals
A32 Collective Volumes
A33 Handbooks
A39 Other

B. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
B00 General
B1 History of Economic Thought through 1925
B10 General
B11 Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
B12 Classical (includes Adam Smith)
B13 Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian)
B14 Socialist • Marxist
B15 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary
B16 Quantitative and Mathematical
B17 International Trade and Finance
B19 Other
B2 History of Economic Thought since 1925
B20 General
B21 Microeconomics
B22 Macroeconomics
B23 Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
B24 Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian
B25 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian • Stockholm School
B26 Financial Economics
B27 International Trade and Finance
B29 Other
B3 History of Economic Thought: Individuals
B30 General
B31 Individuals
B32 Obituaries
B4 Economic Methodology
B40 General
B41 Economic Methodology
B49 Other
B5 Current Heterodox Approaches
B50 General
B51 Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian
B52 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Modern Monetary Theory
B53 Austrian
B54 Feminist Economics
B55 Social Economics
B59 Other

C. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
C00 General
C01 Econometrics
C02 Mathematical Methods
C1 Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
C10 General
C11 Bayesian Analysis: General
C12 Hypothesis Testing: General
C13 Estimation: General
C14 Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
C15 Statistical Simulation Methods: General
C18 Methodological Issues: General
C19 Other
C2 Single Equation Models • Single Variables
C20 General
C21 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions
C22 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes
C23 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
C24 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models
C25 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities
C26 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C29 Other
C3 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables
C30 General
C31 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models
C32 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models
C33 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
C34 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models
C35 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions
C36 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C38 Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models
C39 Other
C4 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
C40 General
C41 Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies
C43 Index Numbers and Aggregation
C44 Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory
C45 Neural Networks and Related Topics
C46 Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics
C49 Other
C5 Econometric Modeling
C50 General
C51 Model Construction and Estimation
C52 Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
C53 Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods
C54 Quantitative Policy Modeling
C55 Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis
C57 Econometrics of Games and Auctions
C58 Financial Econometrics
C59 Other
C6 Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
C60 General
C61 Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis
C62 Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63 Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling
C65 Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67 Input–Output Models
C68 Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69 Other
C7 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
C70 General
C71 Cooperative Games
C72 Noncooperative Games
C73 Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games
C78 Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory
C79 Other
C8 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs
C80 General
C81 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access
C82 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access
C83 Survey Methods • Sampling Methods
C87 Econometric Software
C88 Other Computer Software
C89 Other
C9 Design of Experiments
C90 General
C91 Laboratory, Individual Behavior
C92 Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93 Field Experiments
C99 Other

D. Microeconomics
D00 General
D01 Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02 Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact
D04 Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation
D1 Household Behavior and Family Economics
D10 General
D11 Consumer Economics: Theory
D12 Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14 Household Saving • Personal Finance
D15 Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving
D16 Collaborative Consumption
D18 Consumer Protection
D19 Other
D2 Production and Organizations
D20 General
D21 Firm Behavior: Theory
D22 Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
D23 Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights
D24 Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity
D25 Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing
D26 Crowd-Based Firms
D29 Other
D3 Distribution
D30 General
D31 Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33 Factor Income Distribution
D39 Other
D4 Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
D40 General
D41 Perfect Competition
D42 Monopoly
D43 Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44 Auctions
D45 Rationing • Licensing
D46 Value Theory
D47 Market Design
D49 Other
D5 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
D50 General
D51 Exchange and Production Economies
D52 Incomplete Markets
D53 Financial Markets
D57 Input–Output Tables and Analysis
D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59 Other
D6 Welfare Economics
D60 General
D61 Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis
D62 Externalities
D63 Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64 Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers
D69 Other
D7 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
D70 General
D71 Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations
D72 Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73 Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption
D74 Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions
D78 Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
D79 Other
D8 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D80 General
D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82 Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design
D83 Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness
D84 Expectations • Speculations
D85 Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
D86 Economics of Contract: Theory
D87 Neuroeconomics
D89 Other
D9 Micro-Based Behavioral Economics
D90 General
D91 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making

E. Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
E00 General
E01 Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts
E02 Institutions and the Macroeconomy
E1 General Aggregative Models
E10 General
E11 Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian
E12 Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian • Modern Monetary Theory
E13 Neoclassical
E14 Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional
E16 Social Accounting Matrix
E17 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E19 Other
E2 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
E20 General
E21 Consumption • Saving • Wealth
E22 Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity
E23 Production
E24 Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity
E25 Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26 Informal Economy • Underground Economy
E27 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E29 Other
E3 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
E30 General
E31 Price Level • Inflation • Deflation
E32 Business Fluctuations • Cycles
E37 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E39 Other
E4 Money and Interest Rates
E40 General
E41 Demand for Money
E42 Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems
E43 Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E44 Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E49 Other
E5 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
E50 General
E51 Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers
E52 Monetary Policy
E58 Central Banks and Their Policies
E59 Other
E6 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
E60 General
E61 Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination
E62 Fiscal Policy • Modern Monetary Theory
E63 Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy
E64 Incomes Policy • Price Policy
E65 Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66 General Outlook and Conditions
E69 Other
E7 Macro-Based Behavioral Economics
E70 General
E71 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy

F. International Economics
F00 General
F01 Global Outlook
F02 International Economic Order and Integration
F1 Trade
F10 General
F11 Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12 Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation
F13 Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations
F14 Empirical Studies of Trade
F15 Economic Integration
F16 Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17 Trade Forecasting and Simulation
F18 Trade and Environment
F19 Other
F2 International Factor Movements and International Business
F20 General
F21 International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements
F22 International Migration
F23 Multinational Firms • International Business
F24 Remittances
F29 Other
F3 International Finance
F30 General
F31 Foreign Exchange
F32 Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements
F33 International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34 International Lending and Debt Problems
F35 Foreign Aid
F36 Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37 International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F38 International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
F39 Other
F4 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
F40 General
F41 Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42 International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43 Economic Growth of Open Economies
F44 International Business Cycles
F45 Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions
F47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F49 Other
F5 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
F50 General
F51 International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions
F52 National Security • Economic Nationalism
F53 International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations
F54 Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism
F55 International Institutional Arrangements
F59 Other
F6 Economic Impacts of Globalization
F60 General
F61 Microeconomic Impacts
F62 Macroeconomic Impacts
F63 Economic Development
F64 Environment
F65 Finance
F66 Labor
F68 Policy
F69 Other

G. Financial Economics
G00 General
G01 Financial Crises
G1 General Financial Markets
G10 General
G11 Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions
G12 Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates
G13 Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing
G14 Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading
G15 International Financial Markets
G17 Financial Forecasting and Simulation
G18 Government Policy and Regulation
G19 Other
G2 Financial Institutions and Services
G20 General
G21 Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages
G22 Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies
G23 Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors
G24 Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies
G28 Government Policy and Regulation
G29 Other
G3 Corporate Finance and Governance
G30 General
G31 Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity
G32 Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill
G33 Bankruptcy • Liquidation
G34 Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance
G35 Payout Policy
G38 Government Policy and Regulation
G39 Other
G4 Behavioral Finance
G40 General
G41 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making in Financial Markets
G5 Household Finance
G50 General
G51 Household Saving, Borrowing, Debt, and Wealth
G52 Insurance
G53 Financial Literacy
G59 Other

H. Public Economics
H00 General
H1 Structure and Scope of Government
H10 General
H11 Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H12 Crisis Management
H13 Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization
H19 Other
H2 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H20 General
H21 Efficiency • Optimal Taxation
H22 Incidence
H23 Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24 Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
H25 Business Taxes and Subsidies
H26 Tax Evasion and Avoidance
H27 Other Sources of Revenue
H29 Other
H3 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
H30 General
H31 Household
H32 Firm
H39 Other
H4 Publicly Provided Goods
H40 General
H41 Public Goods
H42 Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43 Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate
H44 Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
H49 Other
H5 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
H50 General
H51 Government Expenditures and Health
H52 Government Expenditures and Education
H53 Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54 Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55 Social Security and Public Pensions
H56 National Security and War
H57 Procurement
H59 Other
H6 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
H60 General
H61 Budget • Budget Systems
H62 Deficit • Surplus
H63 Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt
H68 Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
H69 Other
H7 State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations
H70 General
H71 State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72 State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73 Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74 State and Local Borrowing
H75 State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions
H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
H77 Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession
H79 Other
H8 Miscellaneous Issues
H80 General
H81 Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts
H82 Governmental Property
H83 Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits
H84 Disaster Aid
H87 International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods
H89 Other

I. Health, Education, and Welfare
I00 General
I1 Health
I10 General
I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12 Health Behavior
I13 Health Insurance, Public and Private
I14 Health and Inequality
I15 Health and Economic Development
I18 Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health
I19 Other
I2 Education and Research Institutions
I20 General
I21 Analysis of Education
I22 Educational Finance • Financial Aid
I23 Higher Education • Research Institutions
I24 Education and Inequality
I25 Education and Economic Development
I26 Returns to Education
I28 Government Policy
I29 Other
I3 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
I30 General
I31 General Welfare, Well-Being
I32 Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38 Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39 Other

J. Labor and Demographic Economics
J00 General
J01 Labor Economics: General
J08 Labor Economics Policies
J1 Demographic Economics
J10 General
J11 Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
J12 Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse
J13 Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth
J14 Economics of the Elderly • Economics of Disability • Non-Labor Market Discrimination
J15 Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination
J16 Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination
J17 Value of Life • Forgone Income
J18 Public Policy
J19 Other
J2 Demand and Supply of Labor
J20 General
J21 Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23 Labor Demand
J24 Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity
J26 Retirement • Retirement Policies
J28 Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy
J29 Other
J3 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
J30 General
J31 Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials
J32 Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions
J33 Compensation Packages • Payment Methods
J38 Public Policy
J39 Other
J4 Particular Labor Markets
J40 General
J41 Labor Contracts
J42 Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets
J43 Agricultural Labor Markets
J44 Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing
J45 Public Sector Labor Markets
J46 Informal Labor Markets
J47 Coercive Labor Markets
J48 Public Policy
J49 Other
J5 Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
J50 General
J51 Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52 Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining
J53 Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence
J54 Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership
J58 Public Policy
J59 Other
J6 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
J60 General
J61 Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers
J62 Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
J63 Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs
J64 Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65 Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings
J68 Public Policy
J69 Other
J7 Labor Discrimination
J70 General
J71 Discrimination
J78 Public Policy
J79 Other
J8 Labor Standards: National and International
J80 General
J81 Working Conditions
J82 Labor Force Composition
J83 Workers' Rights
J88 Public Policy
J89 Other

K. Law and Economics
K00 General
K1 Basic Areas of Law
K10 General
K11 Property Law
K12 Contract Law
K13 Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics
K14 Criminal Law
K15 Civil Law • Common Law
K16 Election Law
K19 Other
K2 Regulation and Business Law
K20 General
K21 Antitrust Law
K22 Business and Securities Law
K23 Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K24 Cyber Law
K25 Real Estate Law
K29 Other
K3 Other Substantive Areas of Law
K30 General
K31 Labor Law
K32 Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33 International Law
K34 Tax Law
K35 Personal Bankruptcy Law
K36 Family and Personal Law
K37 Immigration Law
K38 Human Rights Law • Gender Law • Animal Rights Law
K39 Other
K4 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
K40 General
K41 Litigation Process
K42 Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49 Other

L. Industrial Organization
L00 General
L1 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
L10 General
L11 Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms
L12 Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies
L13 Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14 Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks
L15 Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility
L16 Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices
L17 Open Source Products and Markets
L19 Other
L2 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
L20 General
L21 Business Objectives of the Firm
L22 Firm Organization and Market Structure
L23 Organization of Production
L24 Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing
L25 Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
L26 Entrepreneurship
L29 Other
L3 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
L30 General
L31 Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship
L32 Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises
L33 Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out
L38 Public Policy
L39 Other
L4 Antitrust Issues and Policies
L40 General
L41 Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42 Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts
L43 Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44 Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49 Other
L5 Regulation and Industrial Policy
L50 General
L51 Economics of Regulation
L52 Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods
L53 Enterprise Policy
L59 Other
L6 Industry Studies: Manufacturing
L60 General
L61 Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics
L62 Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment
L63 Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment
L64 Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments
L65 Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics
L66 Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits
L67 Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment
L68 Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables
L69 Other
L7 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
L70 General
L71 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73 Forest Products
L74 Construction
L78 Government Policy
L79 Other
L8 Industry Studies: Services
L80 General
L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce
L82 Entertainment • Media
L83 Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism
L84 Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85 Real Estate Services
L86 Information and Internet Services • Computer Software
L87 Postal and Delivery Services
L88 Government Policy
L89 Other
L9 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
L90 General
L91 Transportation: General
L92 Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
L93 Air Transportation
L94 Electric Utilities
L95 Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities
L96 Telecommunications
L97 Utilities: General
L98 Government Policy
L99 Other

M. Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics
M00 General
M1 Business Administration
M10 General
M11 Production Management
M12 Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation
M13 New Firms • Startups
M14 Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility
M15 IT Management
M16 International Business Administration
M19 Other
M2 Business Economics
M20 General
M21 Business Economics
M29 Other
M3 Marketing and Advertising
M30 General
M31 Marketing
M37 Advertising
M38 Government Policy and Regulation
M39 Other
M4 Accounting and Auditing
M40 General
M41 Accounting
M42 Auditing
M48 Government Policy and Regulation
M49 Other
M5 Personnel Economics
M50 General
M51 Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions
M52 Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
M53 Training
M54 Labor Management
M55 Labor Contracting Devices
M59 Other

N. Economic History
N00 General
N01 Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
N1 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations
N10 General, International, or Comparative
N11 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N12 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N13 Europe: Pre-1913
N14 Europe: 1913–
N15 Asia including Middle East
N16 Latin America • Caribbean
N17 Africa • Oceania
N2 Financial Markets and Institutions
N20 General, International, or Comparative
N21 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N22 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N23 Europe: Pre-1913
N24 Europe: 1913–
N25 Asia including Middle East
N26 Latin America • Caribbean
N27 Africa • Oceania
N3 Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
N30 General, International, or Comparative
N31 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N32 U.S. • Canada: 1913-
N33 Europe: Pre-1913
N34 Europe: 1913-
N35 Asia including Middle East
N36 Latin America • Caribbean
N37 Africa • Oceania
N4 Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
N40 General, International, or Comparative
N41 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N42 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N43 Europe: Pre-1913
N44 Europe: 1913–
N45 Asia including Middle East
N46 Latin America • Caribbean
N47 Africa • Oceania
N5 Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
N50 General, International, or Comparative
N51 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N52 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N53 Europe: Pre-1913
N54 Europe: 1913–
N55 Asia including Middle East
N56 Latin America • Caribbean
N57 Africa • Oceania
N6 Manufacturing and Construction
N60 General, International, or Comparative
N61 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N62 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N63 Europe: Pre-1913
N64 Europe: 1913–
N65 Asia including Middle East
N66 Latin America • Caribbean
N67 Africa • Oceania
N7 Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
N70 General, International, or Comparative
N71 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N72 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N73 Europe: Pre-1913
N74 Europe: 1913–
N75 Asia including Middle East
N76 Latin America • Caribbean
N77 Africa • Oceania
N8 Micro-Business History
N80 General, International, or Comparative
N81 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N82 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N83 Europe: Pre-1913
N84 Europe: 1913–
N85 Asia including Middle East
N86 Latin America • Caribbean
N87 Africa • Oceania
N9 Regional and Urban History
N90 General, International, or Comparative
N91 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N92 U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N93 Europe: Pre-1913
N94 Europe: 1913–
N95 Asia including Middle East
N96 Latin America • Caribbean
N97 Africa • Oceania

O. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
O1 Economic Development
O10 General
O11 Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13 Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products
O14 Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology
O15 Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration
O16 Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance
O17 Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements
O18 Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure
O19 International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations
O2 Development Planning and Policy
O20 General
O21 Planning Models • Planning Policy
O22 Project Analysis
O23 Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24 Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy
O25 Industrial Policy
O29 Other
O3 Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights
O30 General
O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes
O34 Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
O35 Social Innovation
O36 Open Innovation
O38 Government Policy
O39 Other
O4 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
O40 General
O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42 Monetary Growth Models
O43 Institutions and Growth
O44 Environment and Growth
O47 Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence
O49 Other
O5 Economywide Country Studies
O50 General
O51 U.S. • Canada
O52 Europe
O53 Asia including Middle East
O54 Latin America • Caribbean
O55 Africa
O56 Oceania
O57 Comparative Studies of Countries

P. Political Economy and Comparative Economic Systems
P00 General
P1 Capitalist Economies
P10 General
P11 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12 Capitalist Enterprises
P13 Cooperative Enterprises
P14 Property Rights
P16 Capitalist Institutions • Welfare State
P17 Performance and Prospects
P18 Energy • Environment
P19 Other
P2 Socialist and Transition Economies
P20 General
P21 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22 Prices
P23 Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population
P24 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
P25 Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
P26 Property Rights
P27 Performance and Prospects
P28 Natural Resources • Energy • Environment
P29 Other
P3 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
P30 General
P31 Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32 Collectives • Communes • Agriculture
P33 International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
P34 Financial Economics
P35 Public Economics
P36 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P37 Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior
P39 Other
P4 Other Economic Systems
P40 General
P41 Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42 Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population
P43 Public Economics • Financial Economics
P44 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
P45 International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P46 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P47 Performance and Prospects
P48 Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies
P49 Other
P5 Comparative Economic Systems
P50 General
P51 Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52 Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59 Other

Q. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics
Q00 General
Q01 Sustainable Development
Q02 Commodity Markets
Q1 Agriculture
Q10 General
Q11 Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices
Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness
Q14 Agricultural Finance
Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment
Q16 R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services
Q17 Agriculture in International Trade
Q18 Agricultural Policy • Food Policy • Animal Welfare Policy
Q19 Other
Q2 Renewable Resources and Conservation
Q20 General
Q21 Demand and Supply • Prices
Q22 Fishery • Aquaculture
Q23 Forestry
Q24 Land
Q25 Water
Q26 Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q27 Issues in International Trade
Q28 Government Policy
Q29 Other
Q3 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
Q30 General
Q31 Demand and Supply • Prices
Q32 Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q33 Resource Booms
Q34 Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q35 Hydrocarbon Resources
Q37 Issues in International Trade
Q38 Government Policy
Q39 Other
Q4 Energy
Q40 General
Q41 Demand and Supply • Prices
Q42 Alternative Energy Sources
Q43 Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q47 Energy Forecasting
Q48 Government Policy
Q49 Other
Q5 Environmental Economics
Q50 General
Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52 Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects
Q53 Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling
Q54 Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming
Q55 Technological Innovation
Q56 Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth
Q57 Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology
Q58 Government Policy
Q59 Other

R. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
R00 General
R1 General Regional Economics
R10 General
R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
R12 Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
R13 General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14 Land Use Patterns
R15 Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models
R19 Other
R2 Household Analysis
R20 General
R21 Housing Demand
R22 Other Demand
R23 Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics
R28 Government Policy
R29 Other
R3 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
R30 General
R31 Housing Supply and Markets
R32 Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
R33 Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R38 Government Policy
R39 Other
R4 Transportation Economics
R40 General
R41 Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise
R42 Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning
R48 Government Pricing and Policy
R49 Other
R5 Regional Government Analysis
R50 General
R51 Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52 Land Use and Other Regulations
R53 Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58 Regional Development Planning and Policy
R59 Other

Y. Miscellaneous Categories
Y1 Data: Tables and Charts
Y10 Data: Tables and Charts
Y2 Introductory Material
Y20 Introductory Material
Y3 Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y30 Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y4 Dissertations (unclassified)
Y40 Dissertations (unclassified)
Y5 Further Reading (unclassified)
Y50 Further Reading (unclassified)
Y6 Excerpts
Y60 Excerpts
Y7 No Author General Discussions
Y70 No Author General Discussions
Y8 Related Disciplines
Y80 Related Disciplines
Y9 Other
Y90 Other
Y91 Pictures and Maps
Y92 Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.

Z. Other Special Topics
Z00 General
Z1 Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology
Z10 General
Z11 Economics of the Arts and Literature
Z12 Religion
Z13 Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification
Z18 Public Policy
Z19 Other
Z2 Sports Economics
Z20 General
Z21 Industry Studies
Z22 Labor Issues
Z23 Finance
Z28 Policy
Z29 Other
Z3 Tourism Economics
Z30 General
Z31 Industry Studies
Z32 Tourism and Development
Z33 Marketing and Finance
Z38 Policy
Z39 Other