Measuring and Understanding Violence against Women (VAW) in Developing Countries
Saturday, Jan. 4, 2020 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM (PDT)
- Chair: Veronica Frisancho, Inter-American Development Bank
Women Empowerment Programs and Domestic Violence
AbstractWomen empowerment programs that transfer skills and resources are expected to improve autonomy, increase bargaining power, and reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, these efforts may backfire if partners increase violence to either control the woman's resources or assert their dominance. Involving men in these interventions by helping them understand how these programs may indirectly benefit them, reflect on their attitudes, and deal with intra-household conflict may minimize these concerns. To test these hypotheses, we pair a women empowerment intervention in DRC, a country where IPV is rampant, with a men's engagement program. This study will shed light on how to design effective policies to empower women and on whether engagement programs can change beliefs and behaviors, thus shedding light on preference, belief, and norm formation.
Countering Violence against Women at Scale: A Mass Media Experiment in Rural Uganda
AbstractViolence against women (VAW) is widespread in East Africa, with almost half of married women experiencing physical abuse. Those seeking to address this policy issue confront two challenges. First, some forms of domestic violence are widely condoned; majorities of men and women believe that a husband is justified in beating his wife in a variety of scenarios. Second, victims and bystanders are often reluctant to report incidents to authorities. Building on a growing literature showing that education-entertainment can change norms and behaviors, we present experimental evidence from a media campaign attended by over 10,000 Ugandans in 112 villages. In randomly assigned villages, video dramatizations discouraged VAW and encouraged reporting. Results from interviews conducted several months after the intervention show no change in attitudes condoning VAW yet a substantial increase in willingness to report to authorities, especially among women, and a decline in the share of women who experienced violence.
Income Changes and Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from Unconditional Cash Transfers in Kenya
AbstractWe study the impact of randomized unconditional cash transfers to both men and women on intimate partner violence in Kenya. Transfers to women averaging USD 709 reduced physical and sexual violence (–0.26, –0.22 standard deviations). Transfers to men reduced only physical violence (–0.18 SD). We find evidence of spillovers: physical violence towards non-recipient women in treatment villages decreased (–0.16 SD). We show theoretically that transfers to both men and women are needed to understand why violence occurs. Our theory suggests that husbands use physical violence to extract resources, but dislike it, while the converse may be true for sexual violence.
- O0 - General
- J1 - Demographic Economics