Reversals of Fortune in Health and Wellness
Friday, Jan. 4, 2019 12:30 PM - 2:15 PM
- Chair: Peter Meyer, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Sexual Dimorphism in Stature as a Measure of Gender Inequality
AbstractMany human biologists argue that males and females have contrasting responses to deprivation during the period of human growth and development. Specifically, females are more resistant than males to adverse conditions, i.e. their physical growth is less likely to falter, or to falter less, if net nutritional conditions deteriorate. Conversely, the growth of males is more likely than that of females to respond vigorously to improving conditions (assuming conditions were less than ideal initially). Therefore the ratio of male to female stature is potentially a useful indicator of the way that nutritional resources were allocated across the sexes within a population or society. This paper measures this sex-specific sensitivity and develops procedures for applying the results to assessing the degree of gender inequality in the allocation of nutritional resources.
Segregation and the initial provision of water in the United States
AbstractWe examine the extent to which segregation shaped the initial provision of water in the United States. We develop a theoretical model to illustrate how segregation affects the extensiveness of water systems. Data from over 1700 cities and towns match the key empirical predictions of our model: waterworks were built earlier in larger and more segregated cities as well as cities with smaller black shares. In the context of our model, these results are consistent with blacks in segregated cities being excluded from water provision. Analysis of health outcomes further supports this interpretation. Segregated cities experienced smaller health improvements following the construction of a waterworks and were much slower to eliminate waterborne diseases. This suggests that, by facilitating the exclusion of black households, segregation also served to undermine the city's ability to eliminate waterborne diseases for all residents.
- N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
- N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries