Urban and Labor
Friday, Jan. 4, 2019 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM
- Chair: Henry J. Munneke, University of Georgia
Geography and Employer Recruiting
AbstractI analyze whether reducing geographic distance to high-wage jobs increases access to those employment opportunities. I collect office locations and campus recruiting strategies for over 70 prestigious banking and consulting firms, from 2000 to 2013. Using an event-study framework, I find firms are twice as likely to recruit at local universities after opening a nearby office, and 6.5 times more likely outside industry clusters. New target campuses outside industry clusters are less academically selective. I complement the analysis with two case studies and firm-level hiring data from two business schools. Hires from local universities also increase after firms increase their local presence, relative to other similar firms. The results suggest the importance of a university's local labor market for post-graduation outcomes.
Workplace Flexibility and Entrepreneurship
AbstractWorking at home benefits workers with low fixed costs and the ability to engage in joint market and household production. We evaluate a large-scale reform in Singapore that allows the possibility of business creation at one’s residential property and study whether the option of home-based entrepreneurship spurs entrepreneurial activities. Difference-in-difference estimate shows that the reform leads to a significantly higher level of business creation, implying that entry regulation with high fixed costs is an important factor that deters entrepreneurship. The effect is more pronounced for low-income individuals and industries with high starting capitals. Additional new firms in response to the reform have a higher survival rate, and the effect is also more pronounced for low-income individuals and industries with high starting capitals. These results suggest that financially constrained entrepreneurs benefit more from the reform. The reform also encourages entrepreneurs to become serial entrepreneurs, and they open a larger business with similar survival rate for their second firm. These results show that the home office scheme effectively spurs entrepreneurial activities and attract more entry into self-employment without significantly lowering the average quality of the pool.
The Impact of Housing Quality on Health and Labor Market Outcomes: The German Reunification
AbstractEnvironmental hazards such as ambient air pollution and extreme temperatures have a significant impact on individuals' health and generate massive economic costs in industrialized countries. However, individuals spend on average 90% of their time indoors reducing their exposure to outdoor hazards. While economist and policy makers are certain that the provision of decent housing should lead to increased health and well-being, empirical evidence is largely missing or based on small scale experiments on poor households in developing countries. This paper studies the massive renovation wave in East Germany in the aftermath of the German reunification to contribute population-representative evidence on the impact of improved housing conditions on occupants' health and labour market outcomes in industrialized countries. During the 90s, the German government implemented several programs to modernize the East German housing portfolio. The largest program spent a total of euro 40 billion and renovated 3.6 million dwellings in East Germany. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and applying a fixed effect approach exploiting the exogenous variation in the exact timing of the renovation, we find that a major renovation of a dwelling significantly improves tenants' subjective and objective health outcomes. Sensitivity analysis with respect to time-varying unobserved factors confirm the robustness of the results.
- R2 - Household Analysis
- J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor