Gender Inequalities and Economic Processes
Friday, Jan. 4, 2019 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM
- Chair: Hanna Szymborska, Open University
Fostering Financial Citizenship – Access to Financial Services and Wealth-Building Capacities Among Minority Women in the USA
AbstractThis paper investigates patterns of financial inclusion among minority women in the USA and their implications for sustainable asset accumulation and alleviating wealth inequality. Black and Hispanic women constitute one of the most economically vulnerable groups in the US society. Their incomes and asset holdings are low, while access to credit has been largely limited to costly borrowing, leading to high degrees of financial fragility. Extension of subprime credit in the 2000s has perpetuated financial insecurity of this group, resulting in lingering income and wealth losses in the aftermath of the Great Recession. A decade on from the crisis, it is not clear how regulation and practices of financial intermediaries have improved provision of sustainable financial services to economically vulnerable households. To answer this question, we employ regression analysis of data from the U.S. Survey of Consumer Finances, analyse patterns of borrowing and asset ownership among Black and Hispanic women between 2001-2007 and 2010-2016 and evaluate their impact on financial stability, inequality, and economic security.
Estimating The Role of Social Reproduction in Economic Growth
AbstractBuilding on the empirical literature on growth and gender inequality and that on the care economy – this paper conducts a macroeconometric study of whether and how different structures of what we term “social reproduction” (defined as the time and commodities it takes to create and maintain the labor force) affect economic growth, and how different systems of gender inequality mediate these effects. The questions we explore include: does care matter for long-term growth, how do its effects compare to standard growth regressors like investment and education, and, does the extent of gender inequality in responsibility for care partly determine the magnitude of these relationships?
Keep Calm and Carry On: Gender Differences in Endurance
AbstractWe investigate gender differences in endurance, the capacity to maintain levels of performance through internal rather than external motivation, a potentially important and thus far overlooked factor explaining gender differences in performance in non-rewarding tasks and the resulting consequences on women’s choices in education, labour markets and in the division of tasks in the household. We conduct a lab experiment in which we study performance in a repetitive task performed under three different payment schemes and find that the tournament scheme has a positive impact on men’s performance, and no impact on women’s performance, whilst the fix rate scheme has a negative impact on men’s performance, but no impact on women’s. Overall, the significant driver of performance is game order for women and payment schemes for men. We also find women’s performances increase over sequences, whilst men’s performances decrease over sequences, which could be the result of either a fatigue effect or a lassitude effect. When looking at social effects, we find men perform better than women in single sex environments; however, this effect disappears in a mixed sex environment and the mitigation comes from both an increase of performance among women and a decrease of performance among men, and it holds in the absence of external incentives. Both women and men respond to social cues but the effect is more through increased intrinsic motivation (ambition) for women and more through extrinsic motivation (competition) for men. We discuss implications of our results for education and labour markets.
- Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology
- I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty