Gender and Employment in Africa
Saturday, Jan. 5, 2019 10:15 AM - 12:15 PM
- Chair: Christian Nsiah, Baldwin Wallace University
What are the Determinant of International Tourism in Tanzania?
AbstractInternational tourism has since been recognized as a conduit for poverty alleviation and infrastructure development. Despite the sector’s importance in Africa in terms of its contribution to economic growth, foreign exchange earnings, and employment, very few studies have attempted to uncover its potential. In the case of Tanzania, where the sector’s importance rank high in the country’s development strategy, only two studies exist, and none on the factors that influence international tourism demand. Therefore, this study makes an important contribution to tourism economics literature in Africa by investigating the relevant determinants of international tourism demand using panel data for Tanzania’s top fifteen tourists’ source countries during the 2000-2016 period. Results, based on various panel data estimation techniques, indicate that income of tourists and infrastructure development in Tanzania, are the two main determinants of international tourism demand for Tanzania. These findings hold across model and sample specifications. From a policy perspective, the government of Tanzania and stakeholders should work towards making Tanzania tourism products more competitive by developing/improving infrastructure in the country. Moreover, there should be a policy that encourages developing tourism packages that fit the demands of tourists from relatively high income countries, and also make conscious efforts to market these products in the target countries. Lowering the cost of living and improving the exchange rate are also some of the areas that the government could work on to help grow the tourism industry
Gender Inequality and Marketisation Hypothesis in sub-Saharan Africa
AbstractThe marketisation hypothesis states that the growth of the service sector reduces gender inequality. This is because women have a comparative advantage in service jobs and consequently benefit more than men as the sector grows. In recent years, the African service sector has grown considerably, however, gender inequality in the continent is still relatively high. Using a new dataset on gender inequality and panel data analysis, we study the relationship between service sector shares and gender inequality in 31 sub-Saharan African countries during the 1990-2014 period. Consistent with predictions of the hypothesis, service sector shares significantly reduce gender inequality and the results are robust after the inclusion of a wide range of controls. However, we find that this relationship is nonlinear, requiring that the size of the service sector reaches a threshold before we observe improvements in gender inequality
Female Tertiary Education Enrolment in Africa: Analysis of Key Drivers
AbstractGoal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals seeks, among others, to ensure that by 2030, equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university is achieved. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), girls still face huge barriers to entering tertiary school. For example in 2016, SSA had the lowest female tertiary enrolment ratio of just 7% against 96.5% in North America; 77.6% in Europe, 55% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 47.3% in East Asia and the Pacific, and even 35.2% in North Africa. In this paper, we analyze the key drivers of female tertiary education enrolment in Africa as a guide to policy by stakeholders. Using cross-sectional time series data from 1990 to 2016, our empirical results (employing OLS and IV-SLS methods) show a novel finding that female tertiary education enrolment can be accounted for by economic development to the third degree polynomial, with positive leading coefficient. Increased democracy, ODA, economic globalization, mobile phone penetration, Christian dominance in a country, female labor force participation, and access to electricity in urban areas increase female tertiary education enrolment. However, higher prevalence of HIV among females aged 15-49 years, female share of the population, civil war incidence, and social globalization tend to lower it. There is also a U-shaped relationship between female fertility and female tertiary education enrolment in Africa. The paper also extends the analysis to males and we find very interesting similarities and differences. The policy implications are discussed
The Causal Effect of Household Extension on Labour Force Participation of Women: Evidence from Child Fostering in Ghana
AbstractPromoting female labour force participation is essential for poverty reduction, gender equality and social cohesion. However, the traditional roles of women within the household in many developing countries continue to impede their full integration into economic activities. The structure and composition of households that women are resident in have implications for their economic outcomes. This study, therefore examines the causal effect of household extension through the practice of child fostering on female labour force participation in Ghana. The paper adopts an endogenous treatment model to account for the non-random decision of households to foster-in a child and market participation of resident women in such households. The study’s findings are indicative that child fostering arrangements in Ghana, perhaps are motivated by human capital considerations. We find a significant negative effect of the presence of a fostered child in the household on the labour force participation decision of resident women. The findings support the restraining effects of extended households due to increased demand for home produced goods. The findings also suggest that receiving households may suffer some welfare losses through foregone female wages. Based on the findings, we recommend the provision of basic household technologies that relieve women from the excessive time demands of home production in the short-term and the continuous promotion of fertility control programmes as long-run strategies
Partnership, Innovation, Commitments and Gains of the Poor in Inclusive Business in Ghana: Multiple Case Studies
AbstractThe IB projects studied in Ghana involve partnerships and collaborations between two NGOs, nine private firms, two commercial banks, three government agencies and two cooperative societies as well as the poor. Partners use contracts, trust-based relations and decision-making meetings as means of sharing responsibility and safeguarding each other’s stakes and resources. The poor consider trust-based relations as the most effective means of engaging them in IB projects. To gain the trust of the poor, two firms started their operation by pre-financing their suppliers, but after sustaining their businesses over time, they stopped. While some of the poor saw this as an unfortunate situation, they continued to deal with the companies because the companies provided them with market access which they were lacking. Another company uses an innovative approach to solve the social issue of child labour. This innovative approach is the payment of extra premiums to farmers for their cocoa beans and the implementation of child labour monitoring system. The poor willingly accepted new innovations, challenges and opportunities as a means of increasing their income and, accessing products and services that are not easily available in their communities. Some of the poor consider their engagement in IB projects as a way of contributing to their society.
- F1 - Trade
- J1 - Demographic Economics