Gender and Development
Friday, Jan. 4, 2019 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM
- Chair: Shanthi Manian, Washington State University
Closing the Gender Gap in Leadership Positions: Can Expanding the Pipeline Increase Parity?
AbstractWe study whether and how increasing the number of women in career stages that precede high-level positions affects female representation at the top of the career ladder. We exploit state legislature elections narrowly won by female candidates to examine the effect of expanding the pipeline of women in local politics on subsequent female representation and success in parliamentary elections. For each additional state legislature election won by a woman, there is a 34 percent increase in the number of female candidates contesting in the subsequent parliamentary election, and a 2.6 percentage-point increase in the average vote share won per female parliamentary candidate. We find that this relationship is driven by new female politicians, and not by the progression of female state legislators nor an increase in the number of past female parliamentary candidates.
Gender Gaps in Technology Diffusion
AbstractEven with comparable innate ability and performance on assigned tasks, women may be subject to discrimination. We run a field experiment across 142 Malawian villages in which either men or women were assigned the task of learning about a new agricultural technology, and then communicating it to others to convince them to adopt. Despite persistent gender gaps in perceptions and attention to their message, female-assigned communicators, perform just as well as their male-assigned counterparts. Micro-data on individual interactions from 4,000 households suggest that other farmers perceive female communicators to be less capable and are less receptive to the women’s messages. Data on social relationships in the village at large do not support a generalized gender communication gap. Instead, the gender gaps in perceptions appear to be aimed at women in communicator roles. Yet, other farmers in female-assigned village learn and retain the new information just as well as in male-assigned villages, and experience similar farm yields.
- J7 - Labor Discrimination
- O1 - Economic Development