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Atlanta Marriott Marquis, M101
American Economic Association
Pink Papers 2: LGB Discrimination in Housing, Education, and Labor Markets
Saturday, Jan. 5, 2019 10:15 AM - 12:15 PM
- Chair: Christopher S. Carpenter, Vanderbilt University
Out of the Closet and into the Classroom: Differences in Human Capital Investments by Sexual Orientation
AbstractHuman capital investment differs by sexual orientation in the United States. These differences exists both along the extensive margin (years of schooling) and the intensive margin (college majors). Using data from nationally representative surveys in the United States, we first show that the differences in years of schooling exist in the ACS, the NHIS, and AddHealth. Gay men obtain between 0.6 and 1.1 more years of schooling than heterosexual men. The differences among men are robust to controlling for demographics, personality characteristics, and family backgrounds. While similar sized gaps exist for lesbian women, the gaps are not significant after controlling personality characteristics and family backgrounds. We then use data from the ACS to study how workplace characteristics and prejudice to homosexuals influence the choice of a college major. We find that gay men and lesbian women are attracted to majors with lower levels of prejudice and higher levels of independence. Conditional on prejudice and independence, the pecuniary rewards for a college major do not appear to influence their choices.
Analyzing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination for Federal Contractor and Noncontractor Firms
AbstractThis paper will present findings of a study that assesses the impact of President Obama’s 2014 executive order forbidding federal contractors to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI). We analyze data on employees’ individual charges of SOGI discrimination filed since the EEOC began interpreting SOGI discrimination as sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act from 2012-2016. We match the charge data to the EEOC’s EEO-1 of establishments to create a pooled cross-section dataset of establishments with and without charges. The EEO-1 data provide information on federal contractor receipt, race and gender composition of employment, and detailed industry. We use economic theories of discrimination and sociological theories of legal consciousness to create measures of factors that predict whether a charge is filed (dependent variable 1) and whether a charge is found to have some merit (dependent variable 2). After controlling for those measures, we look for the annual impact of being a federal contractor in the years after the policy change. Our hypotheses are that the executive order will result in a greater likelihood of a charge (based on legal consciousness theory) but a lower likelihood of a charge with merit (based on discrimination theory). Our preliminary results confirm hypothesis one, as we see an increase in filing of charges against federal contractors in the years the executive order is signed and implemented.
Explaining the Sexual Orientation Gap in Educational Attainment
AbstractThis paper uses data from three nationally representative US surveys to confirm previous findings that lesbians and gay men are more educated than heterosexual men and women and to assesses the plausibility of five potential explanations for this difference: highly educated lesbians and gay men are more likely to “come out”; sexual minorities differ demographically, earn higher wage returns to education, or have different expectations about their future partners’ income; and education is a gateway to more tolerant workplaces. The only explanation that is supported for both lesbians and gay men highlights a non-pecuniary return to schooling: access to more tolerant workplaces.
Texas A&M University
University of Colorado-Denver
Christopher S. Carpenter,
University of Michigan
- I2 - Education and Research Institutions
- J1 - Demographic Economics