Employment, Migration and Inequality
Sunday, Jan. 7, 2018 10:15 AM - 12:15 PM
- Chair: Mine Cinar, Loyola University Chicago
Child Labour Among Refugees and Host Communities: Evidence From Jordan
AbstractThe refugee crisis stemming from the conflict in Jordan has brought over 600,000 registered refugees to Jordan with close to a third of them under the age of 17. The Jordanian government has sought to provide schooling for under-aged refugees, but the magnitude of the influx has strained available resources. Estimates suggest that there are 70,000 child labourers in Jordan, 80% of whom are Jordanian and 15% Syrian refugees. Using panel survey micro data on Jordan in two round from 2010 and 2016, our plan in this paper is to exploit this natural experiment of the refugee crisis to measure the impact of forced migration on child labour among both the local population as well as the refugee community using a variety of econometric techniques. The value added of this research is threefold: (1), filling in the knowledge gap of the impacts of the refugee crisis on child labour for host children and refugee children, (2), employing new and reliable datasets with robust methodologies, and (3), providing evidence for policy on how to reduce the propensity of child labour amidst the refugee crisis.
Inequality Between and Within Immigrant Groups in the United States
AbstractThe increse in income inequality has been one of the defining economic trends of the past forty years. The increase in inequality in the United States has been atributed to skill-biased technological change, globalization, and a a changing institutional environment. To what extent can these factors explain rising inequality? I attempt to answer this question by looking at income inequality both within and between immigrant groups in the United States. There is tremendous variation in income inequality between these groups, with Gini coefficients ranging from 0.59 for immigrants from the MENA to 0.42 for immigrants from Mexico. To what extent are differences in inequality between immigrant groups driven by observable characteristics that differentiate these groups? There are also large differences in inequality between different enclaves of immigrants from the same source country. For example, MENA immigrants living in Michigan have an income Gini coefficient of 0.61 as compared to 0.55 for MENA immigrants living in New Jersey. What features of these immigrant enclaves drive differences in immigrant inequality? In this study, I exploit the variation in income inequality both between and within immigrant groups to estimate the micro level determinants of income inequality using a broad sample of 32 immigrant groups distributed across a wide range of ethnic enclaves derived from ACS data. Initial results suggest that inequality is highest for those groups with the highest skill levels, even though these groups have higher average incomes. That inequality is highest for the most skilled migrants suggests a more nuanced view of the role that technology, globalization and institutions play in influencing inequality
The Determinants of Job Search Intensity in North Africa
AbstractThe success of individuals in finding jobs requires a significant search effort. This article presents an empirical analysis of the determinants of job search intensity in three Middle Eastern countries: Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Our current draft provides only the analysis of Algeria, which uses the national employment survey. We adopt different estimation techniques (discrete choice models, count regression models) to operationalize search intensity and find that age, sex, marital status, education level, characteristics of household, and characteristics of the area significantly influence the intensity of a job seeker’s efforts. Our results show stronger gender specificities in strategies to seek jobs. Women not only use more methods in the search for employment, but also spend more time than men engaged in their job search; this trend has increased in recent years.
- J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers