Macroeconomic Studies of Labor Market
Friday, Jan. 5, 2018 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM
- Chair: Armağan Gezici, Keene State College
The Gender Dynamics of Employment and Distribution in a Globalizing World
AbstractSome of the gains in employment for women, in both developed and developing countries, have come as men’s employment has declined, rendering the shift in women’s work roles gender conflictive. For growth to be inclusive, gains for women should not come at the expense of men. At the same time, there is evidence of defeminization of industrial employment in the context of premature deindustrialization in developing countries. This paper explores these contradictory trends, and presents results from an econometric analysis of the determinants gender job segregation for a set of developing countries for the period 1990 to 2010. In particular, we explore the effects of structural change, including the rising capital-labor ratio, as well as other determinants of labor supply and demand. Additionally, we econometrically estimate the impact of gender job segregation on the labor share of income. Results are suggestion of “crowding” of women into lower quality jobs, and exclusion from high-quality jobs as the capital-labor ratio rises. We also find that greater gender job segregation has a negative impact on the labor share of income.
The Character and Extent of Bondaged Labor in the Globalization Economy
AbstractMy research argues that bondaged forms of labor make up a major component of the “globalization” labor force in the so-called developing countries, very likely of a majority of such workers, I suspect a very one-sided majority. Bondaging effects mark the situation of large numbers of, most notably, Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic and of Malaysia workers in Thailand. These workers are permanent residents – often of several generations – of the Dominican Republic and Thailand, respectively, but are denied all citizen rights there. They are, in effect, ‘stateless persons’ who have no standing to sue, protest, bargain, etc. over the all-too common desperate working and wage conditions. And have no protections against employer-inspired violence. A not dissimilar status is imposed on workers within the “enterprise zones” of Central America which exclude not only tariffs and taxes but, more significant for workers, the operations of the national labor laws in the respective countries. Here, whatever the national labor codes – and ILO conventions -- the employer is free to act unilaterally.
- E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
- J1 - Demographic Economics