Race and Gender in Employment and Education
Saturday, Jan. 6, 2018 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM
- Chair: Marta Lachowska, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
The Black-White Gap in Non-Cognitive Skills Among Elementary School Children
AbstractA vast literature has examined black-white gaps in cognitive skills, but racial differences in non-cognitive skills have attracted relatively little attention. Using data from two cohorts of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we find large black-white gaps in teacher-reported measures of non-cognitive skills, even after controlling for detailed student and family characteristics. We show that these measures likely understate true racial disparities in non-cognitive skills because of systematic differences across schools in what teacher reports actually represent. Correcting for the resulting bias nearly doubles the size of the estimated gaps, to roughly the same magnitude as analogous gaps in test scores. Our estimates are remarkably stable across cohorts, suggesting that black children have neither made nor lost ground in recent decades. Finally, supplemental analyses based on the British Cohort Study of 1970 suggest that non-cognitive skills may account for sizeable portions of black-white disparities in adult outcomes.
Let the Girls Learn! It Is Not Only About Math ... It's About Gender Social Norms
AbstractUsing PISA test scores from 11,527 second-generation immigrants coming from 35 different countries of ancestry and living in 9 host countries, we find that the positive effects of country-of-ancestry gender social norms on girls’ math test scores relative to those of boys expand to other subjects (namely reading and science). We further find that gender norms shaped by beliefs on women’s political empowerment and economic opportunity affect the gender gaps in test scores in general. Interestingly, gender norms do not seem to particularly influence math-related stereotypes, but instead, preferences for math. Finally, the evidence indicates that these findings are driven by cognitive skills, suggesting that social gender norms affect parent’s expectations on girls’ academic knowledge relative to that of boys, but not on other attributes for success--such as non-cognitive skills. Taken together, our results highlight the relevance of general (as opposed to math-specific) gender stereotypes on the math gender gap.
Average Gaps and Oaxaca-Blinder Decompositions
AbstractIn this paper I develop a new version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition whose unexplained component recovers a parameter which I refer to as the average wage gap. Under a particular conditional independence assumption, this estimand is equivalent to the average treatment effect (ATE). I also provide treatment-effects reinterpretations of the Reimers, Cotton, and Fortin decompositions as well as estimate average wage gaps, average wage gains for men, and average wage losses for women in the United Kingdom. Conditional wage gaps increase across the wage distribution and therefore, on average, male gains are larger than female losses.
- J1 - Demographic Economics