Issues in Native American Economic Development
Friday, Jan. 5, 2018 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM
- Chair: Mark Rosenzweig, Yale University
American Indian Casinos and the Rise in Native American Self-identification
AbstractThis paper explores the dramatic rise in individuals identifying as Native American by linking individual racial self-identification with the opening of American Indian casinos at the state level over time. We find that the opening of the first tribal gaming casino in a state is associated with an increase in the probability that individuals with American Indian ancestry will self-identify as Native American. Moreover, these effects increase over time and are driven in part by the likely payment of casino dividends to tribal members. Our results point to the importance of economic incentives underlying the individual choice of racial identity.
Employment Discrimination Against Indigenous Peoples in the United States: Evidence From a Field Experiment
AbstractWe conducted a resume experiment to measure the discrimination in job hiring faced by Indigenous Peoples in the United States (Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians). We created realistic resumes of men and women of about age 30 applying for common entry-level jobs (retail sales, kitchen staff, server, janitor, and security) in 11 cities. We sent employers resumes that either signaled that the applicant was Indigenous or white, with all other resume features the same on average. We compared interview response rates by race to measure hiring discrimination. We further signaled that some of the Native American applicants grew up on an Indian reservation to determine if this increases discrimination. Our preliminary results, based on 9,066 of our expected 13,400 applications, do not show any discrimination. These results are robust to several specifications, in different subsamples (e.g., by city, occupation, gender, signal type) and robustness checks. These preliminary results suggest that the large economic disadvantages faced by Indigenous Peoples are attributable to factors other than discrimination, such as education and the negative legacy of colonialism.
Excess Female Mortality, Institutionalization and Homelessness and the Gender Ratio Among Status Indians in Canada
AbstractWe document exceptionally high mortality rates for young registered Indian women and girls in Canada -- up to four times the Canadian average at certain ages. We show mortality rates are even higher on reserve -- up to five times the Canadian average. These relative mortality rates are higher than the relative mortality rates of African Americans and the Native Americans to non-Hispanic Whites in the United States. However, the registered Indian gender ratio suggests far fewer registered Indian men than would be expected given Canadian averages. Employing confidential-use Census and administrative data, we demonstrate that the gender imbalance is plausibly explained by extremely high rates of institutionalization and homelessness among young registered Indian men. We speculate that this gender imbalance may play a role in excess female mortality in addition to several other socioeconomic factors.
- O1 - Economic Development
- J0 - General