JEL Classification Codes Guide

The guide provides JEL Code application guidelines, keywords, and examples of items within each classification.

The "JEL" classification system originated with the Journal of Economic Literature and is a standard method of classifying scholarly literature in the field of economics. It is used in many of the AEA's published research materials.

Use the guide to gain insight on how JEL Codes are used to classify articles, dissertations, books, book reviews, and working papers. You will also find it is helpful when adding classification codes to your own work.

Click here for printer-friendly formats of the JEL Classification System.

A General Economics and Teaching
B History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
C Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
D Microeconomics
E Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
F International Economics
G Financial Economics
H Public Economics
I Health, Education, and Welfare
J Labor and Demographic Economics
K Law and Economics
L Industrial Organization
M Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics
N Economic History
O Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
P Economic Systems
Q Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
R Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
Y Miscellaneous Categories
Z Other Special Topics
C Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
Guideline:Covers studies about mathematical and quantitative methods, separated from their applications. This separation enables a researcher interested in any of these methods, but not their applications, to search the appropriate literature efficiently. If a given study about these methods also includes applications, it should be cross-classified under the appropriate C category (or categories) and under the appropriate application category (or categories). Studies that apply any known econometric or quantitative method to a particular economic model should not be classified under a C category. For example, a study which uses a well established time series method should not be classified here.
C00 General
C000 Mathematical and Quantitative Methods: General
Guideline: Covers comprehensive or general studies about issues related to mathematical and quantitative methods. This is mainly used for comprehensive survey articles and textbooks.