Gender Issues and Economic Development
Sunday, Jan. 3, 2021 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM (EST)
- Chair: Mary V. Wrenn, University of West England
Inequality, Vested Interests, and Industrial Development: A Comparison of ISI Policy in Mexico and South Korea
AbstractWe investigate disparity as a determinant of the relative success from pursuing import substitution industrialization (ISI) policy using the examples of two formerly under-developed countries, Mexico and South Korea. The purpose of ISI policy is to build incrementally the domestic production capability from light industries to heavy industries by substituting selectively imported materials with domestic products. The progression of ISI policy in South Korea successfully allowed the country to become globally competitive in the manufacturing of automobiles and sophisticated electronic products. In Mexico, on the other hand, the progression of ISI implementation inadequately moved up the production chain before being aborted abruptly. The differential progression of ISI policy had a substantial effect on the structural development of the two countries. We hypothesize that the pattern of disparity, including the distribution of power, at the inception of ISI policy and the evolution of the pattern of disparity affected the pursuit of ISI policy in each nation. ISI began in Mexico during the wake of the global depression in the 1930s; however, significant landed and transnational capital interests impeded the incremental selective progression of ISI, ultimately resulting in the premature abandonment of ISI policy. On the other hand, in the wake of the Korean War in the 1950s, the strong position of military rule in South Korea was conducive to the successful progression of ISI policy and the development of national industrial capital interests.
Neoliberalism and Its Failures in Argentina
AbstractAfter the 1970 crisis, neoliberalism became the dominant approach to economic development throughout the world. As a region faced with developmental challenges, Latin America has also been affected by the pervasiveness and dominance of neoliberal policies. Rooted in neoclassical theory, neoliberalism displaced Latin American contributions for development that predominated during the postwar period, which highlighted the importance of the state to direct an industrialization strategy that allows peripheral economies to develop. In the case of Argentina, neoliberalism was supposed to overcome structural heterogeneity and economic unbalances inherited from the state-led industrialization through policies oriented to liberalize the economy and reduce the state. However, contrary to these suppositions, neoliberalism tended to reinforce the peripheral positioning of Argentina in the global economy, as well as it deepened social and economic inequalities.
The Role of the State in Women’s Enterprise Development: Comparing Gulf Countries
AbstractFemale entrepreneurship has exploded in Gulf countries in recent years. Rights-based agendas spread by international organizations (e.g., the World Bank) have encouraged the economic inclusion of women through enterprise on the basis of neoliberal and market-based logic, largely highlighting entrepreneurship’s potential for bolstering economic growth rather than a more equal economic society (Berglund et al. 2018). Often, the implicit (and faulty) assumption is that economic growth through entrepreneurship also reduces poverty (DeJaeghere and Baxter 2014) and promotes women’s economic inclusion (Sa’ar 2016). This manifestation of neoliberalism has been criticized for creating an idealized “transnational business feminism” (Roberts 2015) and ignoring many of the financial, economic, and social policies that unduly impact female entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship promotion among rentier states, however, is largely motivated by a need for economic diversification and job creation that extends neoliberal premises of individual responsibility and reduces the demands on the extended state apparatus. Rentier states are characterized by authoritative governmental, economic, and social structures leading to outcomes (e.g. underdevelopment in the private sector) that do not follow classical neoliberal orientations. Still, the relationship between enterprise and state is being redefined. Female entrepreneurship promotion then requires not only a revision of traditional gender contracts but an adjustment in the relationship between state and citizen. In such environments, it is critical to investigate the role of the state in ensuring enabling and inclusive business ecosystems for women. While studies examining gender and state policies in one or two Gulf countries are available (Langworthy and Warnecke 2020; Ennis 2019) a comprehensive case study of women’s entrepreneurship development within the non-liberal Gulf context has not yet been undertaken.
Capitalist Development in Brazil: Labor and Gender Perspectives
AbstractCapitalism shapes labor relations according to its needs, being adapted to structural imperatives, as well as to the historical and cultural circumstances of a given place and time. Discrimination against individuals based on criteria of class, race and sex predates capitalism. However, the capitalist production system justifies workers’ position in the labor market based on their physical characteristics, which are perceived as hierarchical elements and used to alleviate social tensions and naturalize social injustices such as underemployment, unemployment, wage differences between whites and blacks and men and women. This research investigates gender relations in the capitalist development process in Brazil. It undertakes a historical approach and aims to understand the structure of these relations and their impacts on Brazilian development, on the labor market and for women, accounting for its economic and social consequences. Labor market sexual segmentation conducts the research. The research question concerns the role of the heterogeneous forms of women’s insertion in the labor market (work at home, intermittent work, part-time work, precarious work, self-employment, domestic work) and non-insertion (“choice” for being housewife) in the capitalist system in general and the specificities of it in the underdeveloped Brazilian capitalism. The research aims to investigate the following general questions: Does the heterogeneity of insertion of women in the labor market increase gendered exploitation? How does it impact white and black women? What is the role of non- insertion (housewife) of a portion of women in the labor market for the capitalist system? What is the particularity of both the heterogeneity of insertions and the self-exclusion of women in the labor market, due to gender roles, in Brazilian underdeveloped capitalism?
- B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches
- O2 - Development Planning and Policy