Racial Discrimination and Disparities: Effects of Institutional and Historical Factors
Tuesday, Jan. 5, 2021 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM (EST)
- Chair: Andria Smythe, Howard University
Competition and Discrimination in Public Accommodations: Evidence from the Green Books
AbstractModels of taste-based discrimination suggest that competition will drive down the
market share of discriminatory firms even in the absence of government intervention.
We present a stylized model that captures the nature of the relationship between the
ratio of non-discriminatory to discriminatory firms and the ratio of non-discriminatory
to discriminatory consumers. We then consider the case of discrimination against black
consumers during the Jim Crow era. Combining exogenous variation in the racial
composition of local markets induced by white casualties during WWII with a novel
dataset of discriminatory and non-discriminatory firms, we find that white casualties
are associated with large increases in both the number of non-discriminatory public
accommodations as well as the ratio of non-discriminatory to discriminatory public
accommodations throughout the United States. While our analysis is most consistent
with the market conditions hypothesis, we show that activism among blacks likely
played a role in the expansion of access to public accommodations.
Civil Rights Enforcement and the Racial Wage Gap
AbstractWe present new evidence on differences in litigation, judge dismissal, and plaintiff win rates across United States district courts from 1979 to 2016. Across courts, litigation rates are negatively (positively) correlated with judge dismissal (plaintiff win) rates. Further, Republican judges tend to dismiss cases at a higher rate than Democrats, regardless of judge gender and race. Finally, states with higher litigation rates also exhibit higher racial wage gaps, whereas states where judge dismissal (plaintiff win) rates are higher experience higher (lower) racial wage gaps. Our results highlight the importance of legal institutions on the persistence of racial inequality.
Contextual Factors that Influence Standardize Test Scores High School Students
AbstractThis research examines how various individual, school and family level contextual factors impact the likelihood of African American student’s performance on standardized tests, specifically the (SAT) as well as those factors that influence students to major in a STEM related field. This research provides context for a larger sub question of how HBCUs influence students to graduate in a stem related field. Contextual factors categorized in this study are self-reported data for (1) internal to the classroom; (2) external to the classroom but within the school environment and; (3) external to the school with majority of factors at the family level. Furthermore, this research is unique in that it will use a logistic model for SAT scores to predict student performance. Evidence from this research provides opportunity for policy makers to better support students in the School Districts and evidence of contextual factors that impact performance on the SAT. This research utilizes data provided by the College Board and College Board Outbound Survey.
The Impact of Access to Collective Bargaining Rights on Policing and Civilian Deaths
AbstractFor decades, the rate of civilians killed by law enforcement in the United States has been unprecedented relative to its comparator countries. In this paper, we explore a potential causal factor: the provision of collective bargaining rights to law enforcement beginning in the 1950s and continuing through the 1980s. Using an event study approach that takes advantage of variation in the location and timing of when officers are granted bargaining rights, we find that over 60% of the increase in non-white civilian deaths can be explained by exposure to collective bargaining. In contrast, there is little to no impact for the white civilian population. Further, access to collective bargaining has no impact on total crime, violent crime, or officer deaths and causes a modest increase in compensation and decline in officer employment. These results are robust to an empirical strategy that relies strictly on border counties, which ensures a more effective control group. It appears that the collective bargaining process is, on average, being used to protect the ability of officers to discriminate in the disproportionate use of force
against the non-white population. The results indicate that the employer, in this case local and regional governments, have a responsibility to bargain in a manner that protects all members of the public.
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund
Economic Policy Institute
- J7 - Labor Discrimination
- N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy