Indigenous Nations Economic Development Strategies: Policies and Outcomes
Sunday, Jan. 3, 2021 12:15 PM - 2:15 PM (EST)
- Chair: Randall Akee, University of California-Los Angeles
The Distributional Impacts of Targeted Labour Market Programming
AbstractThis paper evaluates the effectiveness of a targeted labour market program–the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy (ASETS). ASETS was a demand- driven program for Indigenous peoples in Canada. We use variation in assignment to program interventions to study the distributional impact of different suites of interventions on labour market outcomes. ASETS operated between 2010 and 2017, supporting skills development and job training of Indigenous people in Canada. Partnerships were formed with local service delivery organizations that provided labour market interventions, including but not limited to funding for education and skill up- grading, wage subsidies, and workplace readiness programs. Our analysis makes use of a rich administrative dataset that contains information on all Indigenous program participants, labour market interventions, and unemployment spells. These data are subsequently linked to individual tax files, permitting analysis of post-program labour market outcomes.
Gaming Opportunities: The Impact of Tribal Casinos on Economic Success and Intergenerational Mobility
AbstractThe Indian Gaming Regulatory Act has unlocked successful economic development activity for American Indian tribal governments that is unprecedented in their modern history (Akee et al, 2015; Wash- burn, 2008; National Indian Gaming Commission 2014; Senate Committee on Indian Affairs 1988). American Indian gaming was authorized via the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) of 1988. This law provided a standardized method for American Indian tribal governments to create casino operations on their federally-recognized tribal lands. In our analysis, we assemble a novel panel data set at the individual household level for those residing on American Indian reservations in 1989 prior to the start of the Indian Gaming industry. We then follow the same set of individual households over time. We analyse the impact of casino operations on the socio-economic status of the parents and the long-run economic performance of the children from the same households. Here we focus our analysis on the population of American Indians residing on reservation or tribal lands in 1989, the year immediately after IGRA was adopted and before the onset of the tribal gaming industry. To our knowledge, this is the first and only complete evaluation of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act’s impact on the earnings and incomes of American Indians.
Native Nations and Support for Financial Institutions: Ownership Effects and Perceived Legitimacy
AbstractWe work collaboratively with a Native Nation to understand the financial status of their citizens and their levels of support a foreign-owned bank that will be opening in their territory. We use survey experiments to test the extent to which their support for the bank changes as a result of 1) a general endorsement for financial institutions by the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States, 2a) an endorsement for the bank by their local elected government, and 2b) specific information that their government is moving its accounts to the bank. We also explore the extent to which baseline support and endorsement effects are conditional on the foreign identity of the owners of the bank. Preliminary results suggest strong ownership and endorsement effects on opinion, but small impacts on behavior measured by citizens’ interest in accessing their credit reports.
- O1 - Economic Development
- J1 - Demographic Economics