Thank you, @user_5o4c9e and @Jan_H._Höffler. I checked the references that you listed in the comments and answer sections. So building a data lake may be modelled as a fixed &or sunk cost (depending on how the owner sets it up). There may be several issues around market power. Data lakes may scale the firm's production non-linearly. Data lakes may be viewed as heterogeneous production inputs for the owner. Data lakes may require highly specialized services (thinking high switching cost: difficult if not impossible for a data lake owner to switch service providers). The data may be organized in a panel data format (translating the info from the discussion in the sites referenced above). So there are several potential market power issues that may arise: storing the data (few large firms offer cloud storage), data cleaning (there are a small number of highly specialized firms), and analysing/interpreting the information (again, small number of large firms dominate the market, at least according to Bloomberg stats). More importantly a data lake requires specialized training, and lack of certification and standard may generate information problems (market for lemons, not cars but skills). And then there is the role of government policy: for example some data lake service providers are locked out from certain markets if their services violate residence or security requirements. Thank you again for the references and the high quality discussion.