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May 4 -- The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) invites comments by July 3, 2023 regarding the extension of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP).

The GHGRP requires reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) data and other relevant information from large GHG emission sources, fuel and industrial gas suppliers, and CO2 injection sites in the United States. Approximately 8,000 facilities are required to report their emissions annually, and the reported data are made available to the public in October of each year.
 
In response to the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764; Pub. L. 110–161) and under authority of the Clean Air Act, the EPA finalized the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule (GHG Reporting Rule) (74 FR 56260; October 30, 2009). The GHG Reporting Rule, which became effective on December 29, 2009, establishes reporting requirements for certain large facilities and suppliers. It does not require control of greenhouse gases. Instead, it requires that sources emitting greenhouse gases, supplying certain products that contain greenhouse gases, or injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) underground in quantities above certain threshold levels of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 e) monitor and report their annual emissions.

Subsequent rules have promulgated requirements for additional facilities, suppliers, and mobile sources; provided clarification and corrections to existing requirements; finalized confidentiality business information (CBI) determinations, amended recordkeeping requirements, and implemented an alternative verification approach. Collectively, the GHG Reporting Rule and its associated rulemakings are referred to as the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP).

The GHGRP (codified at 40 CFR Part 98) requires reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) data and other relevant information from large GHG emission sources, fuel and industrial gas suppliers, and CO2 injection sites in the United States. This data can be used by businesses and others to track and compare facilities' greenhouse gas emissions, identify opportunities to cut pollution, minimize wasted energy, and save money. States, cities, and other communities can use EPA’s greenhouse gas data to find high-emitting facilities in their area, compare emissions between similar facilities, and develop common-sense climate policies.

A total of 41 categories of reporters are covered by the GHGRP. Facilities determine whether they are required to report based on the types of industrial operations located at the facility, their emission levels, or other factors. Facilities are generally required to submit annual reports under Part 98 if:

GHG emissions from covered sources exceed 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year.
Supply of certain products would result in over 25,000 metric tons CO2e of GHG emissions if those products were released, combusted, or oxidized.

Approximately 7,600 direct emitting facilities are required to report their emissions annually. Total reported emissions from these facilities are about 3 billion metric tons CO2e, which is about 50 percent of total U.S. GHG emissions. Additional GHGs are accounted for by approximately 1,000 suppliers. In total, data covering 85-90 percent of U.S. GHG emissions are reported. A complete accounting of total U.S. GHG emissions is available through a separate EPA report, the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

Facilities in most source categories subject to Part 98 began reporting for the 2010 reporting year while additional types of industrial operations began reporting for reporting year 2011. GHGRP data are now publicly available for 2010 through 2021.1 Facilities calculate their emissions using methodologies that are specified at 40 CFR Part 98, and they report their data to EPA using the electronic Greenhouse Gas Reporting Tool (e-GGRT). Annual reports covering emissions from the prior calendar year are due by March 31st of each year. Once data are submitted, EPA conducts a multi-step verification process to ensure reported data are accurate, complete, and consistent.

The reported data are made available to the public in the fall of each year through several data portals accessible via the GHG Data Sets page.  https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/data-sets
 
GHGRP: https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting
Supporting documents (from 2019): https://www.regulations.gov/docket/EPA-HQ-OAR-2022-0883/document
FRN: https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2023-09524

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