Nov 21 -- The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), invites comment on a proposed revision of the information collection project titled National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES produces descriptive statistics, which measure the health and nutrition status of the general population. CDC must receive written comments on or before January 20, 2023.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has been conducted periodically between 1970 and 1994, and continuously since 1999. NHANES produces descriptive statistics, which measure the health and nutrition status of the general population. With physical examinations, laboratory tests, and interviews, NHANES studies the relationship between diet, nutrition and health in a representative sample of the United States. NHANES monitors the prevalence of chronic conditions and risk factors and is used to produce national reference data on height, weight, and nutrient levels in the blood. Results from more recent NHANES can be compared to findings reported from previous surveys to monitor changes in the health of the U.S. population over time.
In this Revision, the program is not considering any substantial changes to NHANES content or procedures. The proposed changes being requested include modifications previously approved via non-substantive change requests in addition to a request for three years of approval. As in previous years, the base sample will remain at approximately 5,000 interviewed and examined individuals annually. It is possible that the survey may have to adapt its plans in response to the novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) or related concerns.
NCHS collects personally identifiable information (PII). Participant level data items will include basic demographic information, name, address, Social Security number, Medicare number and participant health information to allow for linkages to other data sources such as the National Death Index and data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
A variety of agencies sponsors data collection components on NHANES. To keep burden down and respond to changing public health research needs, NCHS cycles in and out various components. The 2021-22 NHANES physical examination includes the following components: anthropometry (all ages), liver elastography (ages 12 and older), standing balance (ages 20-69), 24-hour dietary recall via phone (all ages), blood pressure measurement (ages eight and older), and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (ages 8-69, total body scan). While at the examination center, additional interview questions are asked of participants and a second 24-hour dietary recall (all ages) is scheduled to be conducted by phone 3-10 days later.
The 2021-22 survey is similar to what was fielded in 2019-20. NHANES may conduct developmental projects, with a focus on planning for NHANES 2024 and beyond. These may include activities such as tests of new equipment, crossover studies between current and proposed methods, test of different study modes, settings or technology, outreach materials, incentive strategies, sample storage and processing or sample designs. The biospecimens collected for laboratory tests include urine and blood. Serum, plasma and urine specimens are stored for future testing, including genetic research, if the participant consents. Consent to store DNA is continuing in NHANES.
Beginning in 2021, NHANES added the following laboratory tests: Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity in whole blood; an Environmental Toxicant in Washed Red Blood Cells (Hemoglobin Adducts); Environmental Toxicants in serum (seven terpenes); Environmental Toxicants in urine (seven volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites); Infectious Disease Markers in serum (Enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in serum); Nutritional Biomarkers in plasma (Four trans-fatty acids (TFA)); and two Nutritional Biomarkers in serum.
Additionally, at the start of the 2021 survey year, the following Laboratory Tests were modified: Steroid hormones in serum (eleven steroid hormones). Cycling out of NHANES is the Blood Pressure Methodology Study and laboratory tests of Adducts of Hemoglobin (Acrylamide, Glycidamide) and Urine flow rate.
Most sections of the NHANES interviews provide self-reported information to be used in combination with specific examination or laboratory content, as independent prevalence estimates, or as covariates in statistical analysis (e.g., socio-demographic characteristics). Some examples include alcohol, drug, and tobacco use, sexual behavior, prescription and aspirin use, and indicators of oral, bone, reproductive, and mental health. Several interview components support the nutrition-monitoring objective of NHANES, including questions about food security and nutrition program participation, dietary supplement use, and weight history/self-image related behavior.
NHANES will continue multi-mode screening and electronic consent procedures. Our yearly goal for interview, exam and post exam components is 5,600 participants. To achieve this goal, we may need to screen up to 8,300 individuals annually.
Draft data collection instruments and technical documentation: https://www.dropbox.com/scl/fo/fmfkrpng0tcaajvb25cg2/h?dl=0&rlkey=p5ias9rd5d0gnd3hym9sq0evo