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ResearchDataGov--hosted by the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan--is a web portal and application system for discovering and requesting access to restricted microdata from federal statistical agencies. At present:   

Census Bureau -- 54 datasets (includes all major Census-sponsored business and household surveys, foreign trade and LEHD administrative records, the Integrated Longitudinal Business Database, and surveys conducted by Census for NSF, NCHS, BJS)
Bureau of Economic Analysis -- 8 datasets (including Foreign Direct Investment, Direct Investment Abroad)   
Bureau of Labor Statistics -- 6 datasets (including National Compensation Survey, PPI, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses)  
National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics -- 2 datasets (Survey of Doctorate Recipients, Survey of Earned Doctorates/Doctorate Records)
National Center for Health Statistics -- 1 dataset (National Health Interview Survey)

ICPSR developed ResearchDataGov with support and guidance from the Census Bureau, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy.

How are the data in the ResearchDataGov (RDG) portal different than those available in other places?

The data found in the RDG are highly restricted and require an application. The data must be accessed and used only within a Federal Statistical Research Data Center. Public-use datasets have been created from the studies listed here and, in many cases, these may be adequate for your research. The public-use data can often be found on federal websites or in the catalogs of repositories such as ICPSR. Public-use data from the Census Bureau, for example, can be found in the United States Census Bureau Data Repository, housed at ICPSR.

How do I apply for multiple datasets?

When you find a dataset in which you are interested, you can begin an application by clicking "Access Restricted Data." Within that application, you will be able to request other restricted datasets held by the same agency. Those data currently available through ResearchDataGov will be provided in a checklist within the application. If you wish to use a dataset (that is not listed) from the same agency, please indicate this in your research description. Because the agencies have different approval criteria, processes, and administrators, applying for datasets from two or more agencies require separate applications to each of the agencies.  

Why don't I see the datasets I am looking for?

ResearchDataGov (RDG) will be continually updated. We expect more agencies, and more data from the original participants, to be added over the course of the next several months. Check back at the end of each month to see what has been added! If the data you want are not listed, please contact the agency directly.

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