Less corruption, more cash
Each bar represents subsidies* given to poor households. The light red bars indicate villages without CGVOs, and the dark red bars indicate villages with CGVOs. Households in villages with CGVOs tend to receive greater subsidies than non-CGVO households, implying that the CGVO program reduced elite capture of pro-poor programs by corrupt officials.
Source: Author Data
*Note: The subsidies shown are within half a standard deviation
of the mean amount for each income quintile below the poverty line.