Intergenerational Transfers, Parenthood, and Female Hardship
Sunday, Jan. 9, 2022 12:15 PM - 2:15 PM (EST)
- Chair: Jennifer Doleac, Texas A&M University
Does the Child Penalty Strike Twice?
AbstractThis paper studies the relative labor market outcomes of grandmothers in comparison to grandfathers before and after the arrival of the first grandchild. We employ a quasi-experimental event study approach to study the dynamic effects of having a grandchild on a wide range of labor market outcomes. To that end, we use multi-generational high-quality Danish register data containing yearly information in the period 1980–2017 on families in which a person became a grandparent for the first time between 1985 and 2012. We find that women's labor market outcomes decline at a steeper rate than men's after the arrival of the first grandchild. We find gender gaps in earnings of four and ten percent five and ten years after the arrival of the first grandchild, which is driven by women's labor supply on both the intensive and extensive margin. As an identification check, we study the effect of having grandchildren per se, by using a Difference-in-Differences event study design including men and women without grandchildren as controls in the analysis. The analysis confirms that grandmothers adjust their labor supply more than grandfathers upon the arrival of a grandchild. We contribute to the recent strand of research aimed at understanding how fertility can explain the persistent nature of gender inequality in the labor market by investigating how the arrival of grandchildren may further aggravate gender inequality.
Maternal Stress, Compositional Change, and Infant Health after a State Sentencing Reform
AbstractDue to the strong socioeconomic gradient in incarceration rates, scholars have identified mass incarceration as a potential channel behind continued discrepancies in health outcomes across socioeconomic groups. This paper leverages women's exposure to a state sentencing reform through their partner market to understand the relationship between incarceration rates and infant and maternal health. After the reform drastically increased incarceration rates, the average birth saw improvements in health outcomes. However, once maternal characteristics are accounted for the results are mixed: increases in the incidence of low-birth-weight births, hypertension, and the use of tobacco, but a decrease in preterm births. These results are consistent with both increased maternal stress and compositional change as mechanisms. A decomposition exercise shows both socioeconomic and biological factors are important contributors to the relationship between incarceration rates and infant and maternal health.
The Impact of Unconditional Police Reporting on Domestic Violence
AbstractOver the last years, many countries have adopted policies aimed at reducing
violence against women. Most of the enacted measures prioritize criminal justice
as a response to intimate partner violence and require an initial report of domestic
abuse to the police. This study assesses how lowering barriers for women to leave
an abusive relationship aects domestic violence. Exploiting the temporal and
geographic variation in the adoption of non-mandatory police reporting laws, I
nd that allowing battered women to receive protection and assistance without the
need to face the legal system when reporting the abuse reduces intimate partner
homicides. I show that facilitating the dissolution of abusive relations and reducing
domestic violence in intact couples are the two mechanisms through which the law
- I1 - Health
- J1 - Demographic Economics