Gender Norms, Discrimination, and Intimate Partner Violence
Sunday, Jan. 3, 2021 3:45 PM - 5:45 PM (EST)
- Chair: Johannes Haushofer, Princeton University
Conflict Exposure in Childhood and Adolescence and Acceptance of Domestic Violence in Adulthood
AbstractDrawing on survey data from twenty-three countries in Sub-Saharan Africa combined with records of all conflict events in the region since 1946, we examine whether being exposed to conflict in childhood and adolescence affects one’s acceptance of violent behavior later in life. Exploiting variation in exposure to conflict across villages and cohorts of birth, we show that early conflict exposure affects tolerance for domestic violence in adulthood. The sign of the effect varies by gender and age at exposure: Exposure to conflict at ages 0 to 9 increases women’s acceptance of domestic violence, while exposure to conflict at ages 10 to 19 reduces men’s tolerance for wife-beating. The effects are driven by exposure to high intensity conflicts (wars). When looking at age at first exposure, we confirm that being exposed to a war for the first time in early childhood increases women’s acceptance of domestic violence and that being first exposed to a war between ages 11 and 15 reduces men’s tolerance for wife-beating.
Trade-offs? The Impact of WTO Accession on Intimate Partner Violence in Cambodia
AbstractWe study the impact of trade-induced changes in labor market conditions on violence within the
household. We exploit the local labor demand shocks generated by Cambodia's WTO accession to test
how shifts in the relative employment of women compared to men affected the risk of intimate partner
violence. We document that men in districts facing larger tariff reductions experienced a significant decline in employment. These trade-induced job losses generated an added worker effect, as women entered the labor force. The increase in women's employment triggered backlash effects by increasing intimate partner violence, without changes in marriage, fertility, or psychological wellbeing.
Gender Differences in Political Career Progression: Evidence from United States Elections
AbstractWe establish the existence of gender differences in career progression to leadership positions among U.S. politicians and study their underlying causes. Using a close elections strategy, we find that an additional state legislature term increases the probability of ever running for Congress by twice as much for men as it does for women and the effect on winning a Congressional race is five times larger for men than women. These gaps emerge early in legislators' careers, widen over time, and are seen alongside a higher propensity of female politicians to continue running for the state legislature. The gap cannot be attributed to differences in experience, career-family tradeoffs, election or constituency characteristics, nor preferences for part-time public service careers.
- B0 - General
- J0 - General