Pink Papers 1: Discrimination Against LGBTQ+ People
Tuesday, Jan. 5, 2021 12:15 PM - 2:15 PM (EST)
- Chair: John A. List, University of Chicago, NBER, and IZA
Gender Identity, Race, and Ethnicity Discrimination in Access to Mental Health Care: Evidence from an Audit Field Experiment
AbstractWe seek to quantify, using an audit field experiment, to what extent transgender women, transgender men, nonbinary people, and racial and ethnic minorities (African American, Hispanic) face discrimination in access to appointments with mental health professionals (therapists, counselors, and psychologists). To test if trans/nonbinary people and racial and ethnic minorities face discrimination in access to appointments with MHPs, we email MHPs requesting appointments from fictitious prospective patients who vary based on race or ethnicity (white, Hispanic, and African-American names) and based on gender identity. In the email, prospective patients introduce themselves, mention their mental health concern (anxiety, stress, or depression), request an appointment, and, for trans/nonbinary people, mention they are seeking a therapist who is “trans-friendly.” We measure discrimination primarily by comparing the appointment offer rates by race, ethnicity, and gender identity.
Pride in the Flag? LGBTQ+ Identity and Social Preferences
AbstractWhile attitudes toward LGBTQ+ individuals in the United States have improved over the past few decades, there remain persistent inequalities in their socioeconomic status relative to the general population. Using a novel method to signal one's sexual identity in controlled experiments, this paper examines discriminatory behavior along pro-social domains and individuals' responses in anticipation of such behavior. Pro-social behavior plays an important role in day-to-day interactions and contributes to social cohesion within diverse communities. Nonetheless, we find evidence of discrimination based on perceived sexual identity, where heterosexual individuals gift less of their endowed money to individuals whom they perceive to be non-heterosexual. Importantly, such behavior is largely shaped by their political views. Moreover, non-heterosexual women are less likely to signal their sexual identity when they are made aware of the potential ramifications that these signals could have on their payoffs, while men are more likely to do so instead. We posit that women may in general be more likely to anticipate discriminatory behavior. Our findings contribute to debates on the appropriate policies to address discrimination against these individuals both in the workplace and the community at large. Our novel tool of signalling one’s sexual identity in a salient but non-intrusive manner also creates opportunities for advancing research relating to LGBTQ+ individuals and other minority groups.
University of Massachusetts-Amherst
Sherry Xin Li,
University of Arkansas
- J1 - Demographic Economics
- C9 - Design of Experiments