Gender Equality and Parenting from the Baby Boom to COVID-19
Monday, Jan. 4, 2021 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM (EST)
- Chair: Alessandra Maria Voena, University of Chicago
Female Labor Force Participation and Intergenerational Mobility
AbstractMarried women's labor force participation in Norway rose from 9 percent in 1960 to 79 percent in 2011. What are the implications of this major shift in women’s labor supply across generations for socioeconomic mobility? Using administrative data on the universe of the Norwegian population, we document and investigate trends in intergenerational elasticities for men and women born between 1960 and 1985, at both the individual and family level. These cohorts, especially those born between 1960 and the mid-1970s, are likely to have grown up with a stay-at-home mother, but to be in a two-earner household as adults. We develop a framework that helps us understand how women’s labor supply maps into typical measures of intergenerational mobility for men and women, individuals and families, and how human capital, material welfare and marital sorting processes interact. We show that, under plausible parameterizations, increased labor supply of mothers will tend to lower the intergenerational elasticity coefficient. Preliminary analysis suggests that, in cross sectional data, mother labor supply and intergenerational mobility are positively related.
This Time It's Different: The Role of Women's Employment in a Pandemic Recession
AbstractIn recent US recessions, employment losses have been much larger for men than for women. Yet, in the economic downturn caused by the Covid-19 pandemic the opposite is true: women's employment declined much more than men's. Why does a pandemic recession have a disproportionate impact on women's employment, and what are the wider repercussions of this phenomenon? We argue that more women lost jobs because their employment is concentrated in contact-intensive sectors such as restaurants and because increased childcare needs during school and daycare closures prevented many from working. We analyze the macroeconomic implications of women's employment losses using a model that features heterogeneity in gender, marital status, childcare needs, and human capital. A pandemic recession is qualitatively different from a regular recession because women's labor supply behaves differently than men's. Specifically, our quantitative analysis shows that a pandemic recession features a stronger transmission from employment to aggregate demand and results in a persistent widening of the gender wage gap. Many of the negative repercussions of a pandemic recession can be averted by prioritizing opening schools and daycare centers during the recovery.
- J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
- N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy