The Care Economy and Parental Time Use With Children in Developed and Developing Economies
Saturday, Jan. 7, 2017 5:30 PM – 7:15 PM
- Chair: Joyce Jacobsen, Wesleyan University
Has Universal Childcare Policy Alleviated Parental Time Burdens and Influenced Parental Engagement With Children? The Case of South Korea
AbstractPublic child care policies are commonly aimed at raising the female labor force participation and the paid work time of mothers with young children. One of their consequences is the influence they have on the parental time use with children. South Korean government introduced means-tested child care programs in 1999 and since 2013 has provided universal child care subsidies to all parents with children between 0 and 5 years old. In this paper, we provide quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of the universal childcare program on parental engagement with children and on the childcare time burdens of South Korean mothers and fathers. We undertake this analysis by using 2004, 2009, and 2014 Korean Time Use Survey data, applying the difference-in-difference method.
Does ‘Doing Care’ Mean Less Child Care? Insights From the Indian Time Use Survey
AbstractThis paper examines the trade-off between child care and other work in rural India. Bargaining models suggest that women who earn incomes can reduce “housework”, and in turn could provide better care. However, women in developing countries often have to manage paid work and unpaid work, including care in the same time and space, resulting in overwork, or stress, or both. Building on theories of “doing gender" and institutional bargaining, I argue that women "do care" even with paid work because they are culturally obliged to, and also because tasks such as making food, fetching water are immediate. Yet, women also face a “care paradox” where they have to sacrifice time to direct hands-on child care to ensure other tasks supporting child care, such as cooking, fetching water, and earning income get done. I employ the Indian Time Use Survey to evaluate whether (a) time to direct child care is lower when women's time to other work is higher, and (b) time to direct child care is lower when women's time to indirect care, such as cooking, is higher. I also use data gathered from central India to outline qualitative details explaining how this paradox comes about. My results have strong implications for strengthening public care provision in India.
- D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics
- J1 - Demographic Economics