The large tax differentials between Chicago and neighboring jurisdictions provide an incentive for cigarette tax avoidance. Data from a random sample of cigarette packs littered in Chicago reveals a startling degree of tax avoidance: three-quarters did not display a Chicago tax stamp. Also, the $2.68 difference between the tax in Chicago and surrounding counties decreases the probability of a local stamp by almost 60 percent, and a one mile increase in distance to the lower-tax state border increases the probability a pack of a local stamp by about one percent. These results are consistent with the predictions of economic theory. (JEL H25, H26, H71)
"The Micro-geography of Tax Avoidance: Evidence from Littered Cigarette Packs in Chicago."
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,
Business Taxes and Subsidies including sales and value-added (VAT)
State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue