Was affirmative action successful in increasing employment opportunities for blacks? In this paper, affirmative action will refer to the provisions of Lyndon Johnson's Executive Order 11246 in 1965, as amended by Richard Nixon's Executive Order 11375 [3 C.F.R. 169 (1974)]. Under Executive Order 11246, federal contractors agree "not to discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, nor national origin, and to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, color, religion, sex or national origin" [3 C.F.R. 169 202(1) (1974)].
"The Impact of Affirmative Action Regulation and Equal Employment Law on Black Employment." Journal of Economic Perspectives,