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Journal of Economic Literature: Vol. 50 No. 3 (September 2012)

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Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development

Article Citation

Docquier, Frédéric, and Hillel Rapoport. 2012. "Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development." Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3): 681-730.

DOI: 10.1257/jel.50.3.681

Abstract

This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and review the evidence on these channels. The recent empirical literature shows that high-skill emigration need not deplete a country's human capital stock and can generate positive network externalities. Three case studies are also considered: the African medical brain drain, the exodus of European scientists to the United States, and the role of the Indian diaspora in the development of India's information technology sector. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the analysis for education, immigration, and international taxation policies in a global context. ( JEL F02, F22, J24, J61, O15)

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Authors

Docquier, Frédéric (FNRS and IRES, Catholic U Louvain)
Rapoport, Hillel (Bar-Ilan U and EQUIPPE, U Lille)

JEL Classifications

F02: International Economic Order
F22: International Migration
J24: Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
J61: Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
O15: Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration


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