JEL Classification System / EconLit Subject Descriptors


The JEL classification system was developed for use in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), and is a standard method of classifying scholarly literature in the field of economics. The system is used to classify articles, dissertations, books, book reviews, and working papers in EconLit, and in many other applications. For descriptions and examples, see the JEL Codes Guide.

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All changes since 2013-07-01 are noted below.
= New Classification
= Updated Classification
 
A00 General Economics and Teaching
A10 General Economics: General
A11 Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
A12 Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13 Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14 Sociology of Economics
A19 General Economics: Other
A20 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: General
A21 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Pre-college
A22 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Undergraduate
A23 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Graduate
A29 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Other
A30 Collective Works: General
A31 Collected Writings of Individuals
A32 Collective Volumes
A33 Handbooks
A39 Collective Works: Other
 
B00 History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
B10 History of Economic Thought through 1925: General
B11 History of Economic Thought: Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
B12 History of Economic Thought: Classical (includes Adam Smith)
B13 History of Economic Thought: Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Stockholm School)
B14 History of Economic Thought through 1925: Socialist; Marxist
B15 History of Economic Thought through 1925: Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary
B16 History of Economic Thought: Quantitative and Mathematical
B19 History of Economic Thought through 1925: Other
B20 History of Economic Thought since 1925: General
B21 History of Economic Thought: Microeconomics
B22 History of Economic Thought: Macroeconomics
B23 History of Economic Thought: Quantitative and Mathematical
B24 History of Economic Thought since 1925: Socialist; Marxist; Sraffian
B25 History of Economic Thought since 1925: Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian
B26 History of Economic Thought since 1925: Financial Economics
B29 History of Economic Thought since 1925: Other
B30 History of Economic Thought: Individuals: General
B31 History of Economic Thought: Individuals
B32 Obituaries
B40 Economic Methodology: General
B41 Economic Methodology
B49 Economic Methodology: Other
B50 Current Heterodox Approaches: General
B51 Current Heterodox Approaches: Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian
B52 Current Heterodox Approaches: Institutional; Evolutionary
B53 Current Heterodox Approaches: Austrian
B54 Feminist Economics
B59 Current Heterodox Approaches: Other
 
C00 Mathematical and Quantitative Methods: General
C01 Econometrics
C02 Mathematical Methods
C10 Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
C11 Bayesian Analysis: General
C12 Hypothesis Testing: General
C13 Estimation: General
C14 Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
C15 Statistical Simulation Methods: General
C18 Methodological Issues: General
C19 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Other
C20 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: General
C21 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions
C22 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
C23 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Panel Data Models; Spatio-temporal Models
C24 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
C25 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
C26 Single Equation Models: Single Variables: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C29 Single Equation Models; Single Variables: Other
C30 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables: General
C31 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
C32 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
C33 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Panel Data Models; Spatio-temporal Models
C34 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
C35 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
C36 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C38 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Classification Methods; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components; Factor Models
C39 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables: Other
C40 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics: General
C41 Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
C42 Classification Discontinued 2008. See C83.
C43 Index Numbers and Aggregation; Leading indicators
C44 Operations Research; Statistical Decision Theory
C45 Neural Networks and Related Topics
C46 Specific Distributions; Specific Statistics
C49 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics: Other
C50 Econometric Modeling: General
C51 Model Construction and Estimation
C52 Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
C53 Forecasting Models; Simulation Methods
C54 Quantitative Policy Modeling
C55 Modeling with Large Data Sets
C57 Econometrics of Games
C58 Financial Econometrics
C59 Econometric Modeling: Other
C60 Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling: General
C61 Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
C62 Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63 Computational Techniques; Simulation Modeling
C65 Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67 Input-Output Models
C68 Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69 Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling: Other
C70 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory: General
C71 Cooperative Games
C72 Noncooperative Games
C73 Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games; Repeated Games
C78 Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
C79 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory: Other
C80 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs: General
C81 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
C82 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data; Data Access
C83 Survey Methods; Sampling Methods
C87 Econometric Software
C88 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs: Other Computer Software
C89 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs: Other
C90 Design of Experiments: General
C91 Design of Experiments: Laboratory, Individual
C92 Design of Experiments: Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93 Field Experiments
C99 Design of Experiments: Other
 
D00 Microeconomics: General
D01 Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02 Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations
D03 Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
D04 Microeconomic Policy: Formulation; Implementation; Evaluation
D10 Household Behavior: General
D11 Consumer Economics: Theory
D12 Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14 Household Saving; Personal Finance
D18 Consumer Protection
D19 Household Behavior and Family Economics: Other
D20 Production and Organizations: General
D21 Firm Behavior: Theory
D22 Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
D23 Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
D24 Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
D29 Production and Organizations: Other
D30 Distribution: General
D31 Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33 Factor Income Distribution
D39 Distribution: Other
D40 Market Structure and Pricing: General
D41 Market Structure and Pricing: Perfect Competition
D42 Market Structure and Pricing: Monopoly
D43 Market Structure and Pricing: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44 Auctions
D45 Rationing; Licensing
D46 Value Theory
D47 Market Design
D49 Market Structure and Pricing: Other
D50 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: General
D51 Exchange and Production Economies
D52 Incomplete Markets
D53 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: Financial Markets
D57 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: Input-Output Tables and Analysis
D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: Other
D60 Welfare Economics: General
D61 Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis
D62 Externalities
D63 Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64 Altruism; Philanthropy
D69 Welfare Economics: Other
D70 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General
D71 Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
D72 Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73 Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
D74 Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
D78 Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
D79 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: Other
D80 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty: General
D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82 Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
D83 Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief
D84 Expectations; Speculations
D85 Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
D86 Economics of Contract: Theory
D87 Neuroeconomics
D89 Information and Uncertainty: Other
D90 Intertemporal Choice: General
D91 Intertemporal Household Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
D92 Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing
D99 Intertemporal Choice: Other
 
E00 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General
E01 Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
E02 Institutions and the Macroeconomy
E03 Behavioral Macroeconomics
E10 General Aggregative Models: General
E11 General Aggregative Models: Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary
E12 General Aggregative Models: Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
E13 General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical
E16 General Aggregative Models: Social Accounting Matrix
E17 General Aggregative Models: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E19 General Aggregative Models: Other
E20 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy: General (includes Measurement and Data)
E21 Macroeconomics: Consumption; Saving; Wealth
E22 Capital; Investment; Capacity
E23 Macroeconomics: Production
E24 Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital
E25 Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26 Informal Economy; Underground Economy
E27 Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E29 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy: Other
E30 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data)
E31 Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
E32 Business Fluctuations; Cycles
E37 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E39 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Other
E40 Money and Interest Rates: General
E41 Demand for Money
E42 Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
E43 Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E44 Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47 Money and Interest Rates: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E49 Money and Interest Rates: Other
E50 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General
E51 Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
E52 Monetary Policy
E58 Central Banks and Their Policies
E59 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: Other
E60 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General
E61 Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
E62 Fiscal Policy
E63 Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
E64 Incomes Policy; Price Policy
E65 Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66 General Outlook and Conditions
E69 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: Other
 
F00 International Economics: General
F01 Global Outlook
F02 International Economic Order
F10 Trade: General
F11 Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12 Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
F13 Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F14 Empirical Studies of Trade
F15 Economic Integration
F16 Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17 Trade: Forecasting and Simulation
F18 Trade and Environment
F19 Trade: Other
F20 International Factor Movements and International Business: General
F21 International Investment; Long-term Capital Movements
F22 International Migration
F23 Multinational Firms; International Business
F24 Remittances
F29 International Factor Movements: Other
F30 International Finance: General
F31 Foreign Exchange
F32 Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
F33 International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34 International Lending and Debt Problems
F35 Foreign Aid
F36 Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37 International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F38 International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
F39 International Finance: Other
F40 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General
F41 Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42 International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43 Economic Growth of Open Economies
F44 International Business Cycles
F47 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F49 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: Other
F50 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy: General
F51 International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions
F52 National Security; Economic Nationalism
F53 International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
F54 Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
F55 International Institutional Arrangements
F59 International Relations and International Political Economy: Other
F60 Economic Impacts of Globalization: General
F61 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Microeconomic Impacts
F62 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Macroeconomic Impacts
F63 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Economic Development
F64 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Environment
F65 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Finance
F66 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Labor
F68 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Policy
F69 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Other
 
G00 Financial Economics: General
G01 Financial Crises
G02 Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles
G10 General Financial Markets: General (includes Measurement and Data)
G11 Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
G12 Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
G13 Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing; option pricing
G14 Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
G15 International Financial Markets
G17 Financial Forecasting and Simulation
G18 General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation
G19 General Financial Markets: Other
G20 Financial Institutions and Services: General
G21 Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
G22 Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
G23 Pension Funds; Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
G24 Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage; Ratings and Ratings Agencies
G28 Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation
G29 Financial Institutions and Services: Other
G30 Corporate Finance and Governance: General
G31 Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies; Capacity
G32 Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
G33 Bankruptcy; Liquidation
G34 Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Voting; Proxy Contests; Corporate Governance
G35 Payout Policy
G38 Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation
G39 Corporate Finance and Governance: Other
 
H00 Public Economics: General
H10 Structure and Scope of Government: General
H11 Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H12 Crisis Management
H19 Structure and Scope of Government: Other
H20 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue: General
H21 Taxation and Subsidies: Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
H22 Taxation and Subsidies: Incidence
H23 Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24 Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies; includes inheritance and gift taxes
H25 Business Taxes and Subsidies including sales and value-added (VAT)
H26 Tax Evasion
H27 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenues: Other Sources of Revenue
H29 Taxation and Subsidies: Other
H30 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: General
H31 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Household
H32 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Firm
H39 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Other
H40 Publicly Provided Goods: General
H41 Public Goods
H42 Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43 Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
H44 Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
H49 Publicly Provided Goods: Other
H50 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: General
H51 National Government Expenditures and Health
H52 National Government Expenditures and Education
H53 National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55 Social Security and Public Pensions
H56 National Security and War
H57 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: Procurement
H59 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: Other
H60 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: General
H61 National Budget; Budget Systems
H62 National Deficit; Surplus
H63 National Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
H68 Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
H69 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt: Other
H70 State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations: General
H71 State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72 State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73 State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations: Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74 State and Local Borrowing
H75 State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions
H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
H77 Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism; Secession
H79 State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations: Other
H80 Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues: General
H81 Governmental Loans; Loan Guarantees; Credits; Grants; Bailouts
H82 Governmental Property
H83 Public Administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits
H84 Disaster Aid
H87 International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
H89 Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues: Other
 
I00 Health, Education, and Welfare: General
I10 Health: General
I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12 Health Production
I13 Health Insurance, Public and Private
I14 Health and Inequality
I15 Health and Economic Development
I18 Health: Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
I19 Health: Other
I20 Education and Research Institutions: General
I21 Analysis of Education
I22 Educational Finance; Financial Aid
I23 Higher Education; Research Institutions
I24 Education and Inequality
I25 Education and Economic Development
I28 Education: Government Policy
I29 Education: Other
I30 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty: General
I31 General Welfare; Well-Being
I32 Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty: Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty: Other
 
J00 Labor and Demographic Economics: General
J01 Labor Economics: General
J08 Labor Economics Policies
J10 Demographic Economics: General
J11 Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
J12 Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure; Domestic Abuse
J13 Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J14 Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-labor Market Discrimination
J15 Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
J16 Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
J17 Value of Life; Forgone Income
J18 Demographic Economics: Public Policy
J19 Demographic Economics: Other
J20 Demand and Supply of Labor: General
J21 Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23 Labor Demand
J24 Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
J26 Retirement; Retirement Policies
J28 Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
J29 Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination: Other
J30 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: General
J31 Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
J32 Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
J33 Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
J38 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: Public Policy
J39 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: Other
J40 Particular Labor Markets: General
J41 Labor Contracts
J42 Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
J43 Agricultural Labor Markets
J44 Professional Labor Markets; Occupational Licensing
J45 Public Sector Labor Markets
J46 Informal Labor Markets
J47 Coercive Labor Markets
J48 Particular Labor Markets: Public Policy
J49 Particular Labor Markets: Other
J50 Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining: General
J51 Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52 Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining
J53 Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
J54 Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms; Employee Ownership
J58 Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining: Public Policy
J59 Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining: Other
J60 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers: General
J61 Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
J62 Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
J63 Labor Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
J64 Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65 Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
J68 Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies: Public Policy
J69 Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies: Other
J70 Labor Discrimination: General
J71 Labor Discrimination
J78 Labor Discrimination: Public Policy
J79 Labor Discrimination: Other
J80 Labor Standards: General
J81 Labor Standards: Working Conditions
J82 Labor Standards: Labor Force Composition
J83 Labor Standards: Workers' Rights
J88 Labor Standards: Public Policy
J89 Labor Standards: Other
 
K00 Law and Economics: General
K10 Basic Areas of Law: General (Constitutional Law)
K11 Property Law
K12 Contract Law
K13 Tort Law and Product Liability; Forensic Economics
K14 Criminal Law
K19 Basic Areas of Law: Other
K20 Regulation and Business Law: General
K21 Antitrust Law
K22 Business and Securities Law
K23 Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K29 Regulation and Business Law: Other
K30 Other Substantive Areas of Law: General
K31 Labor Law
K32 Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33 International Law
K34 Tax Law
K35 Personal Bankruptcy Law
K36 Family and Personal Law
K37 Immigration Law
K39 Other Substantive Areas of Law: Other
K40 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior: General
K41 Litigation Process
K42 Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior: Other
 
L00 Industrial Organization: General
L10 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance: General
L11 Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
L12 Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
L13 Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14 Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
L15 Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
L16 Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change; Industrial Price Indices
L17 Open Source Products and Markets
L19 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance: Other
L20 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior: General
L21 Business Objectives of the Firm
L22 Firm Organization and Market Structure
L23 Organization of Production
L24 Contracting Out; Joint Ventures; Technology Licensing
L25 Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
L26 Entrepreneurship
L29 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior: Other
L30 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise: General
L31 Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
L32 Public Enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
L33 Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
L38 Public Policy
L39 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise: Other
L40 Antitrust Issues and Policies: General
L41 Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42 Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
L43 Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44 Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49 Antitrust Policy: Other
L50 Regulation and Industrial Policy: General
L51 Economics of Regulation
L52 Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
L53 Enterprise Policy
L59 Regulation and Industrial Policy: Other
L60 Industry Studies: Manufacturing: General
L61 Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
L62 Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment
L63 Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
L64 Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
L65 Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
L66 Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco; Wine and Spirits
L67 Other Consumer Nondurables
L68 Appliances; Furniture; Other Consumer Durables
L69 Industry Studies: Manufacturing: Other
L70 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction: General
L71 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73 Forest Products
L74 Construction
L78 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction: Government Policy
L79 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction: Other
L80 Industry Studies: Services: General
L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
L82 Entertainment; Media
L83 Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
L84 Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85 Real Estate Services
L86 Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
L87 Postal and Delivery Services
L88 Industry Studies: Services: Government Policy
L89 Industry Studies: Services: Other
L90 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities: General
L91 Transportation: General
L92 Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
L93 Air Transportation
L94 Electric Utilities
L95 Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
L96 Telecommunications
L97 Utilities: General
L98 Industry Studies: Utilities and Transportation: Government Policy
L99 Industry Studies: Utilities and Transportation: Other
 
M00 Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting: General
M10 Business Administration: General
M11 Production Management
M12 Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
M13 New Firms; Startups
M14 Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
M15 IT Management
M16 International Business Administration
M19 Business Administration: Other
M20 Business Economics: General
M21 Business Economics
M29 Business Economics: Other
M30 Marketing and Advertising: General
M31 Marketing
M37 Advertising
M38 Marketing and Advertising: Government Policy and Regulation
M39 Marketing and Advertising: Other
M40 Accounting and Auditing: General
M41 Accounting
M42 Auditing
M48 Accounting and Auditing: Government Policy and Regulation
M49 Accounting: Other
M50 Personnel Economics: General
M51 Personnel Economics: Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
M52 Personnel Economics: Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
M53 Personnel Economics: Training
M54 Personnel Economics: Labor Management
M55 Personnel Economics: Labor Contracting Devices
M59 Personnel Economics: Other
 
N00 Economic History: General
N01 Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
N10 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: General, International, or Comparative
N11 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N12 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N13 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: Europe: Pre-1913
N14 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: Europe: 1913-
N15 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: Asia including Middle East
N16 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: Latin America; Caribbean
N17 Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: Africa; Oceania
N20 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: General, International, or Comparative
N21 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N22 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N23 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Europe: Pre-1913
N24 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Europe: 1913-
N25 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Asia including Middle East
N26 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Latin America; Caribbean
N27 Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Africa; Oceania
N30 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: General, International, or Comparative
N31 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N32 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N33 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Europe: Pre-1913
N34 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Europe: 1913-
N35 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Asia including Middle East
N36 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Latin America; Caribbean
N37 Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Africa; Oceania
N40 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: General, International, or Comparative
N41 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N42 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N43 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: Europe: Pre-1913
N44 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: Europe: 1913-
N45 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: Asia including Middle East
N46 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: Latin America; Caribbean
N47 Economic History: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation: Africa; Oceania
N50 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: General, International, or Comparative
N51 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N52 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N53 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: Europe: Pre-1913
N54 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: Europe: 1913-
N55 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: Asia including Middle East
N56 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: Latin America; Caribbean
N57 Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: Africa; Oceania
N60 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: General, International, or Comparative
N61 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N62 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N63 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: Europe: Pre-1913
N64 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: Europe: 1913-
N65 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: Asia including Middle East
N66 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: Latin America; Caribbean
N67 Economic History: Manufacturing and Construction: Africa; Oceania
N70 Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: General, International, or Comparative
N71 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N72 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N73 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: Europe: Pre-1913
N74 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: Europe: 1913-
N75 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: Asia including Middle East
N76 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: Latin America; Caribbean
N77 Economic History: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services: Africa; Oceania
N80 Micro-Business History: General, International, or Comparative
N81 Micro-Business History: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N82 Micro-Business History: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N83 Micro-Business History: Europe: Pre-1913
N84 Micro-Business History: Europe: 1913-
N85 Micro-Business History: Asia including Middle East
N86 Micro-Business History: Latin America; Caribbean
N87 Micro-Business History: Africa; Oceania
N90 Regional and Urban History: General
N91 Regional and Urban History: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N92 Regional and Urban History: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N93 Regional and Urban History: Europe: Pre-1913
N94 Regional and Urban History: Europe: 1913-
N95 Regional and Urban History: Asia including Middle East
N96 Regional and Urban History: Latin America; Caribbean
N97 Regional and Urban History: Africa; Oceania
 
O00 Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth
O10 Economic Development: General
O11 Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13 Economic Development: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
O14 Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
O15 Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
O16 Economic Development: Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
O17 Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
O18 Economic Development: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
O19 International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
O20 Development Planning and Policy: General
O21 Planning Models; Planning Policy
O22 Project Analysis
O23 Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24 Development Planning and Policy: Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy
O25 Industrial Policy
O29 Development Planning and Policy: Other
O30 Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights: General
O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
O34 Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
O35 Social Innovation
O38 Technological Change: Government Policy
O39 Technological Change: Other
O40 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General
O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42 Monetary Growth Models
O43 Institutions and Growth
O44 Environment and Growth
O47 Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
O49 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: Other
O50 Economywide Country Studies: General
O51 Economywide Country Studies: U.S.; Canada
O52 Economywide Country Studies: Europe
O53 Economywide Country Studies: Asia including Middle East
O54 Economywide Country Studies: Latin America; Caribbean
O55 Economywide Country Studies: Africa
O56 Economywide Country Studies: Oceania
O57 Comparative Studies of Countries
 
P00 Economic Systems: General
P10 Capitalist Systems: General
P11 Capitalist Systems: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12 Capitalist Enterprises
P13 Cooperative Enterprises
P14 Capitalist Systems: Property Rights
P16 Capitalist Systems: Political Economy
P17 Capitalist Systems: Performance and Prospects
P19 Capitalist Systems: Other
P20 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: General
P21 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Prices
P23 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
P24 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P25 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
P26 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Political Economy; Property Rights
P27 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Performance and Prospects
P28 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
P29 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Other
P30 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: General
P31 Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32 Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
P33 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
P34 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: Financial Economics
P35 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: Public Economics
P36 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training: Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P37 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
P39 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions: Other
P40 Other Economic Systems: General
P41 Other Economic Systems: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42 Other Economic Systems: Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
P43 Other Economic Systems: Public Economics; Financial Economics
P44 Other Economic Systems: National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P45 Other Economic Systems: International Trade, Finance, Investment and Aid
P46 Other Economic Systems: Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P47 Other Economic Systems: Performance and Prospects
P48 Other Economic Systems: Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
P49 Other Economic Systems: Other
P50 Comparative Economic Systems: General
P51 Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52 Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59 Comparative Economic Systems: Other
 
Q00 Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics: General
Q01 Sustainable Development
Q02 Global Commodity Markets
Q10 Agriculture: General
Q11 Agriculture: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
Q14 Agricultural Finance
Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
Q16 Agricultural R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
Q17 Agriculture in International Trade
Q18 Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
Q19 Agriculture: Other
Q20 Renewable Resources and Conservation: General
Q21 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q22 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Fishery; Aquaculture
Q23 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Forestry
Q24 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Land
Q25 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Water
Q26 Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q27 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Issues in International Trade
Q28 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Government Policy
Q29 Renewable Resources and Conservation: Other
Q30 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: General
Q31 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q32 Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q33 Resource Booms
Q34 Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q35 Hydrocarbon Resources
Q37 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Issues in International Trade
Q38 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Government Policy
Q39 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Other
Q40 Energy: General
Q41 Energy: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q42 Alternative Energy Sources
Q43 Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q47 Energy Forecasting
Q48 Energy: Government Policy
Q49 Energy: Other
Q50 Environmental Economics: General
Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52 Pollution Control Adoption Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
Q53 Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
Q54 Climate; Natural Disasters; Global Warming
Q55 Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation
Q56 Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
Q57 Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology
Q58 Environmental Economics: Government Policy
Q59 Environmental Economics: Other
 
R00 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: General
R10 General Regional Economics (includes Regional Data)
R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
R12 Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
R13 General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14 Land Use Patterns
R15 General Regional Economics: Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Models
R19 General Regional Economics: Other
R20 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Household Analysis: General
R21 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Housing Demand
R22 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Other Demand
R23 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics
R28 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Government Policy
R29 Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Household Analysis: Other
R30 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location: General
R31 Housing Supply and Markets
R32 Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
R33 Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R38 Production Analysis and Firm Location: Government Policy
R39 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location: Other
R40 Transportation Economics: General
R41 Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
R42 Transportation Economics: Government and Private Investment Analysis; Road Maintenance, Transportation Planning
R48 Transportation Economics: Government Pricing and Policy
R49 Transportation Economics: Other
R50 Regional Government Analysis: General
R51 Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52 Regional Government Analysis: Land Use and Other Regulations
R53 Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58 Regional Development Planning and Policy
R59 Regional Government Analysis: Other
 
Y10 Data: Tables and Charts
Y20 Introductory Material
Y30 Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y40 Dissertations (unclassified)
Y50 Further Reading (unclassified)
Y60 Excerpt
Y70 No Author General Discussions
Y80 Related Disciplines
Y90 Miscellaneous Categories: Other
Y91 Pictures and Maps
 
Z00 Other Special Topics: General
Z10 Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology: General
Z11 Cultural Economics: Economics of the Arts and Literature
Z12 Cultural Economics: Religion
Z13 Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
Z18 Cultural Economics: Public Policy
Z19 Cultural Economics: Other


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